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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Epithelia and Connective Tissue

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Barbara Ballyk

ANA300Y1 September 19, 2011 Lecture 3 – Epithelia Part 3 & Connective Tissue Part 1  Carcinoma refers to a malignant tumor that arises from epithelia specifically  Malignant tumors are capable of metastasizing, travelling from the primary source tissues to other tissues of the body (ex. skin tumor travelling to the brain).  Benign tumors don’t metastasize. They can grow uncontrollably as well but don’t spread.  Carcinoma is malignant tumors that arise from epithelium. Adenocarcinoma arises from glandular epithelium. Malignant tumors can arise from other tissues as well; sarcoma (arising from muscles, blood vessels and bones), lymphoma (arises from lymphoid tissue) and leukemia (arises from white blood cells).  Squamous cell carcinoma example – there is a distinct line that separates the epithelium and connective tissue, but it seems to be blurred because the epithelium has now invaded the underlying tissue. Connective Tissue (Ordinary Connective Tissue and Cartilage)  Tissues are composed of cell and cell products. Connective tissues (everything from adipose, cartilage, tendons, bones) have fewer cells and the bulk of the tissue is cell product (acellular material; the cell matrix, stuff between the cells).  Matrix consists of fibers (protein) and ground substance (goo in between). Characteristics of matrix determine its properties and functions. It is the matrix that makes bones hard, it is the matrix that makes cartilage rubbery, matrix that makes loose connective tissue flexible support.  The matrix is produced by the cells of the connective tissue.  Cells create protein fibers and organic ground substances and secrete them in their extracellular environment.  Cells are specialized, fibro- is ordinary connective tissue, chondro- is cartilage and osteo- is bone tissue.  Connective tissues consists of cells and matrix. Matrix are made up of fibers and ground substance. There are collagen and elastic fibers. There are tissue fluid and organic molecules that make up the ground substance. Proteoglycans and adhesive glycoproteins are the organic molecules.  Tendon connects a muscle to a bone. Ligament connects bone to bone. Muscles contract and shorten to generate tension. When the muscle shortens, the bone moves. That’s only if the bone doesn’t give and it requires the protein to be inelastic.  Collagen is a major component of tendons. It is inelastic and resists tension (great tensile strength). Tendons are made up of bundles of collagen fibers. Fibers are made up of smaller components called fibrils.  There are over 20 types of collagen, based on amino acid sequences. Collagen are fibrillar which forms long structures, and their synthesis is a multistep process.  Preprocollagen makes the procollagen, which makes the tropocollagen, which makes the fibrils which forms the fibers.  Alpha chains (mRNA) are transferred to the cytosol. The alpha chains are synthesized within the rough ER (preprocollagen) and it is assembled into an alpha helix. Registration peptides are important because it maintains the solubility of procollagen. Procollagen is transferred to the Golgi and it is packaged into secretory vesicles and is associated with microtubules, transferred to the cell surface. They are then released and registration peptides are removed, they are now called tropocollagen, which only exists extracellularly. Tropocollagen spontaneously aggregates and forms collagen fibrils. There are covalent cross-links that make the tropocollagen very strong and resist tens
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