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Lecture

Archaeology-Lecture 2-Analysis and Interpretation Oct 30 2008

by

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Marcel Danesi

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ANT100 Introduction to Anthropology 2008
Archaeology Section
Lecture 2 - Analysis and Interpretation
October 30, 2008
Summary of Lecture 2 Content
(Re)CONSTRUCTION
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DATA PROCESSING
y (1) Cleaning
y (2) Conservation: may or may not be necessary; depends on the artifact class
y (3) Cataloguing: applying order to materials found
y Data Organization
y Involves classification:
y Process by which we assign items to categories (classes) in pre-arranged system
y Rules: determine whether an item belongs or does not belong to a class
y One popular method of classification and analysis in material culture is through the use of
typology
y 7\SRORJ\FODVVLILFDWLRQRIDUWLIDFWµVWDWHEDVHGRQVRPHFULWHULRQRUFULWHULD
DATA ORGANIZATION
y Question: were the artifact types we recognize today also recognized by their manufacturers?
y Other words, are they emic or etic in nature?
y Typology
y (PLFµLQVLGHVYLHZRIFXOWXUHWKHW\SHZDVUHFRJQL]HGE\LWVPDQXIDFWXUHUDVPHDQLQJIXO
y (WLFµRXWVLGHVYLHZRIFXOWXUHWKHW\SHLVRQO\PHDQLQJIXOWRWKHDQDO\VW
y Artifacts
y Stone (Lithics):
y Clay (Ceramics)
y Metal
y Bone (faunal)
y Plants (baskets, wooden tools)
y Ecofacts
y Faunal remains: animal bones not used as tools
y Floral remains: plant material used as tools
ANALYSIS
y Lithic Tools
y Display evidence of reduction, can further be subdivided into:
y Chipped/Flaked or Lithic tools
y Made by Flintknapping- one of the earliest industrial arts
y Emerged with homo habilis some 2.5 MYA
y Involves removing flakes from cores in a controlled manner
y Core: the block of raw material from which flakes are struck
y Flake: the relatively thin fragment of lithic material removed from a core
y Debitage: the by products of core reduction; includes flakes and exhausted cores
y Groundstone Lithic Tools
y Produced by pecking, abrading and polishing macrocrystalline structures
y Usually have smooth durable edges and surfaces (ex: manos, metates, axes)
y Decorative items can also be made from ground stone
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