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Lecture 3

Archaeology-Lecture 3-Lower and Middle Paleolithic Lifeways Nov 6 2008

3 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Marcel Danesi

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ANT100 Introduction to Anthropology 2008
Archaeology Section
Lecture 3 - Lower and Middle Paleolithic Lifeways
November 6, 2008
Major Biological Trends
y Influenced by shift in the mode of locomotion from quadrupedalism to bipedalism
y Major changes
I. Increased cranial capacity/decreased prognathism)
II. Change in shape in pelvis (shorter, broader illium)
III. Shift in position of the foramen magnum
IV. Change in shape of the dental arcade
Homo Habilis
y µHandy personµ- assumed tool making abilities
y First discovered by Louis and Mary Leakey in Bed I at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1960
y Decrease in prognathism; higher, rounder cranium
y Increased in cranial capacity: 600-700 cc
y Thought to correlate with capacity to make stone tools, better exploit landscape
y Bipedal, but retained ability to climb trees
y Similar lengths in humeri/femora
y Similar to chimpanzees, but not like us
Origins of Human Culture
y We see with homo habilis, for the first time, evidence of learned behaviour in the form of:
y Tool use (the Oldowan Tool Tradition)
y Subsistence/Settlement practices (home bases)
y Social Organization
Early Tool Use: The Oldowan
y Earliest (?) µhuman technology- the Oldowan
I. Beginning of the lower Paleolithic Period
y Simple Tools; East Africa (Olduvai Gorge), ca. 2.5 MYA
II. Coincides with the emergence of H. habilis
y Notable for large pebble choppers with flakes removed at one end
Homo Habilis Tool Use
y Percussion flaking
Lifeways
y Oldowan tools found in associated with faunal remains at Olduvai Gorge (DK1)
I. Hunting or scavenging? (Pat Shipman)
II. Product of natural process?
III. Co-operation and food sharing?
Homo Erectus
y Transition to more advanced hominin forms, ex: Homo erectus ca. 1.9 MYA
y Transition coincides, roughly with the start of the Pleistocene
The Pleistocene
y Geological µepoch or time period
I. Aka the ice age; ca. 1.8 MYA- 12, 000 BP
y Characterized by cyclical warm/cold climatic conditions
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Description
ANT100 Introduction to Anthropology 2008 Archaeology Section Lecture 3 - Lower and Middle Paleolithic Lifeways November 6, 2008 Major Biological Trends O Influenced by shift in the mode of locomotion from quadrupedalism to bipedalism O Major changes I. Increased cranial capacitydecreased prognathism) II. Change in shape in pelvis (shorter, broader illium) III. Shift in position of the foramen magnum IV. Change in shape of the dental arcade Homo Habilis O Handy person- assumed tool making abilities O First discovered by Louis and Mary Leakey in Bed I at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1960 O Decrease in prognathism; higher, rounder cranium O Increased in cranial capacity: 600-700 cc O Thought to correlate with capacity to make stone tools, better exploit landscape O Bipedal, but retained ability to climb trees O Similar lengths in humerifemora O Similar to chimpanzees, but not like us Origins of Human Culture O We see with homo habilis, for the first time, evidence of learned behaviour in the form of: O Too
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