Archaeology-Lecture 4-Upper Paleolithic Lifeways and Peopling of the Americas Nov 20 2008

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Published on 23 Aug 2010
School
UTSG
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
ANT100 Introduction to Anthropology 2008
Archaeology Section
Lecture 4 - Upper Paleolithic Lifeways and Peopling of the Americas
November 20, 2008
Summary of Lecture 4 Content
Summary of Cultural Chronology
x Lower Paleolithic: 2.5 MYA to 300 KYA
o H. Habilis (Oldowan); H. Erectus (Acheliuan)
x Middle Paleolithic: 300 KYA- 40K YA
o Neanderthals
x Upper Paleolithic- 400, 000- 14 KYA
o Modern Human Beings
Modern Human Origins
x Introduction
o Modern humans (H. sapiens sapiens) emerge between 200 and 100 KYA
o Earliest evidence is from Africa
o Some debate with regard to evolutionary mechanism- continuity or replacement
x Models - Multiregional vs. Out of Africa
o
x mtDNA evidence
o mtDNA evidence goes against the mutliregional model
Modern humans derive from a 200 KYA African population (little or no
interbreeding with Archaic HS)
Genetic material most diverse among African populations; suggest longer
period of development here
8 base pair differences among exact populations (suggests some 30 KYA
development, not 1.8 million)!
Cultural Development - Upper Paleolithic
x New tool kits based on antler, bone and wood
x Development of Aurignacian tool tradition after 25 KYA
o Includes blade tools, burins, and microliths
o Emergence of indirect percussion and pressure flaking techniques
x Blade technology
o Often involved indirect percussion/punch techniques as well as pressure
flaking/retouch
o Characteristics: long and narrow, parallel sides
o Increased efficiency, decreased waste
x Nature and Extent of Changes in Tool Technology
x Burins**
o Is a chisel like tool used to cut, incise and shape materials like bone, antler and
wood
o It was often made of a flake (or blade)
x Microliths
o Eurasia; essentially hafted blade tools with one blunt edge
o Served as spear barbs, arrow points, small knives and scrapers
x Indirect Percussion / Pressure Flaking
x Atlatl
o Also developed: the Atlatl or spear thrower
Lever used to propel a spear
Greater accuracy, thrust and distance
Attached to the spear with a bone or antler hook
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Document Summary

Lecture 4 - upper paleolithic lifeways and peopling of the americas. Lower paleolithic: 2. 5 mya to 300 kya: h. habilis (oldowan); h. erectus (acheliuan) N middle paleolithic: 300 kya- 40k ya: neanderthals. N upper paleolithic- 400, 000- 14 kya: modern human beings. Introduction: modern humans (h. sapiens sapiens) emerge between 200 and 100 kya, earliest evidence is from africa, some debate with regard to evolutionary mechanism- continuity or replacement. N models - multiregional vs. out of africa. N mtdna evidence: mtdna evidence goes against the mutliregional model. S modern humans derive from a 200 kya african population (little or no interbreeding with archaic hs) S genetic material most diverse among african populations; suggest longer period of development here. S 8 base pair differences among exact populations (suggests some 30 kya development, not 1. 8 million)! N new tool kits based on antler, bone and wood. N development of aurignacian tool tradition after 25 kya.

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