Lecture 4 - upper paleolithic lifeways and peopling of the americas. Lower paleolithic: 2. 5 mya to 300 kya: h. habilis (oldowan); h. erectus (acheliuan) N middle paleolithic: 300 kya- 40k ya: neanderthals. N upper paleolithic- 400, 000- 14 kya: modern human beings. Introduction: modern humans (h. sapiens sapiens) emerge between 200 and 100 kya, earliest evidence is from africa, some debate with regard to evolutionary mechanism- continuity or replacement. N models - multiregional vs. out of africa. N mtdna evidence: mtdna evidence goes against the mutliregional model. S modern humans derive from a 200 kya african population (little or no interbreeding with archaic hs) S genetic material most diverse among african populations; suggest longer period of development here. S 8 base pair differences among exact populations (suggests some 30 kya development, not 1. 8 million)! N new tool kits based on antler, bone and wood. N development of aurignacian tool tradition after 25 kya.