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Lecture

Archaeology-Chapter 10-The Upper Paleolithic and Peopling of the New World Nov 20 2008

3 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Marcel Danesi

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Reading Notes
11-20-08
Chapter 10: The Upper Paleolithic & Peopling of the µNew World
Upper Palaeolithic Cultures
y Upper Palaeolithic: the period associated with the emergence of MH and their spread around
the world
y Mesolithic: the archeological period in the Old World beginning about 12,000 BC. Humans
were starting to settle down in semi permanent camps/villages as ppl began to depend less
on big game and more on relatively stationary food resources: fish, shellfish, small game,
wild plants (rich in crabs, protein, oils)
y emergence of art- painting on cave walls/stone slabs, carving tools, decorative objects,
personal ornaments (out of bone, antler, shell etc)
y Larger sites, human population increased,
y New inventions- bow/arrow, spear thrower, tiny replacement blades
The Last Ice Age
y Glaciers covering Europe as far as Berlin and Warsaw, NA-> Chicago
y To the south of these glaciers fronts was a tundra zone extending in Europe to the Alps, and
in NA to the Ozarks, Appalachians, well out onto the great plains
y Different climate compared to today- average annual temperatures were as much as 10
degrees Celsius, changes in ocean currents (temp contrasts-extreme)
y Europe- heavy snowfall, N Africa- much wetter than today, S Asia- drier
y Large animals (Megafauna)- Siberian mammoths, sloths, wooly rhinoceros, giant deer
Upper Palaeolithic Europe
y Vast supplies of meat available from Megafauna: UP cultures relied on hunting
y Began trade with neighboring groups in order to obtain resources not available in their local
territories
y Caves, rock shelters, tent like structures, paved floors, etc, made from animal bones, fur/skin
y Could hold 20-25 ppl
y Other huts: dug into the ground, contained bake oven, fire fragments, animal figurines,
bones (maybe used as musical instruments)
Upper Palaeolithic Tools
y Indirect percussion: a tool making technique common in the UP. After shaping a core around
into a pyramidal or cylindrical form, the toolmaker could put a punch of antler or wood or
another hard material into position and strike it with a hammer. Using a hammer struck
punch enabled the toolmaker to strike off consistently shaped blades
y Pressure Flaking: tool making technique whereby small flakes are struck off by pressing
against the core with a bone, antler, or wood tool
y Microlith: a small, razor like blade fragment that was probably attached in a series to a
wooden or bone handle to form a cutting edge
How Were the Tools Used?
y Tools made by the UP ppl suggested- effective hunters and fishers than their predecessors
y Atlatl: Aztec word for spear thrower
y Bow/arrow: used in various places, harpoon: fishing, hunting
y Still scavenging animal remains
Art
y Beads. Carvings, paintings (displayed skill)
y Paintings in W Europe: inhabited rock shelters/cave entrances, galleries - immediately off the
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Description
Reading Notes 11-20-08 Chapter 10: The Upper Paleolithic & Peopling of the New World Upper Palaeolithic Cultures O Upper Palaeolithic: the period associated with the emergence of MH and their spread around the world O Mesolithic: the archeological period in the Old World beginning about 12,000 BC. Humans were starting to settle down in semi permanent campsvillages as ppl began to depend less on big game and more on relatively stationary food resources: fish, shellfish, small game, wild plants (rich in crabs, protein, oils) O emergence of art- painting on cave wallsstone slabs, carving tools, decorative objects, personal ornaments (out of bone, antler, shell etc) O Larger sites, human population increased, O New inventions- bowarrow, spear thrower, tiny replacement blades The Last Ice Age O Glaciers covering Europe as far as Berlin and Warsaw, NA-> Chicago O To the south of these glaciers fronts was a tundra zone extending in Europe to the Alps, and in NA to the Ozarks, Appalachians, well out onto the great plains O Different climate compared to today- average annual temperatures were as much as 10 degrees Celsius, changes in ocean currents (temp contrasts-extreme) O Europe- heavy snowfall, N Africa- much wetter than today, S Asia- drier O Large animals (Megafauna)- Siberian mammoths, sloths, wooly rhinoceros, giant deer Upper Palaeolithic Europe O
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