Chapter 10: the upper paleolithic & peopling of the new world. O upper palaeolithic: the period associated with the emergence of mh and their spread around the world. O mesolithic: the archeological period in the old world beginning about 12,000 bc. O new inventions- bow/arrow, spear thrower, tiny replacement blades. O glaciers covering europe as far as berlin and warsaw, na-> chicago. O to the south of these glaciers fronts was a tundra zone extending in europe to the alps, and in na to the ozarks, appalachians, well out onto the great plains. O different climate compared to today- average annual temperatures were as much as 10 degrees celsius, changes in ocean currents (temp contrasts-extreme) Large animals (megafauna)- siberian mammoths, sloths, wooly rhinoceros, giant deer. O europe- heavy snowfall, n africa- much wetter than today, s asia- drier. O vast supplies of meat available from megafauna: up cultures relied on hunting.