Archaeology-Chapter 12-Origin of Food Production and Settled Life Nov 27 2008

5 Pages
179 Views

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Marcel Danesi

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Reading Notes
11-27-08
Chapter 12: Origin of Food Production and Settled Life
y Beginning ~14K YA, ppl began to depend less on big game hunting and more- relatively
stationed food resources (fish, shellfish, small game, wild plants)
y Europe/Near East which these developments took place is called the Mesolithic
y Fist clear switch over to food production- the cultivation and domestication of plants and
animals in Near East (8000 BC)-> ³Neolithic Revolution´
y Sedentism: settling in a single, permanent location
Food Collection and Production
y Food Collection: all forms of subsistence technology in which food-getting is dependent on
naturally occurring resources- wild plants and animals
y Subsistence Technology: the methods human use to procure food
y Foragers: ppl who subsist on the collection of naturally occurring plants and animals- also
referred to as hunter and gatherers- live in
marginal
areas of earth (deserts, artic, tropical
forests)
y Food production: the form of subsistence technology in which food getting is dependent on
the cultivation and domestication of plants and animals
Horticulture
y Horticulture: plant cultivation carried out with relatively simple tools and methods, nature
replaces nutrients in the soil, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields
y (1) Shifting Cultivation: a type of horticulture in which the land is worked for short
periods and then left to regenerate for some years before being used again
y (2) Slash and Burn Techniques: a form of shifting cultivation in which the natural
vegetation is cut down and burned off. The cleared ground is used for a short time and
hen left again
y Most horticultures do not rely on crops alone for food- many hunt and fish
y Raise domesticated animals- cattle, camels, pigs, goat, sheep
y Horticulture society- simple farming techniques have tended to yield more food form a given
area than is generally available to food collectors- therefore HC can support larger , densely
populated communities
Intensive Agriculture
y Intensive Agriculture: food production characterized by the permanent cultivation of fields
and made possible by the use of the plow, draft animals or machines, fertilizers, irrigation,
water storage techniques, and other complex agricultural techniques
Pre-Agricultural Develops
Europe
y Environmental changes (melting of glaciers-> dense mixed forests)- induced some pops in
Europe to alter food getting strategies
y No longer obtain large quantities of meat- intensive collecting of wild plants, molluscs, fish,
small game
y The Maglemosian Culture of Northern Europe
y Settlers of N Europe- Maglemosians
y To deal with new forests-> made stones axes to chop down trees and form them into various
objects- Canoes, paddles (which were used for travel, fishing)
y Depended mainly on hunting for food (elk, wild ox, deer, wild pig)
y Tool kit included B&A
www.notesolution.com
The Near East
y Shift from mobile game eating to utilization of a broad spectrum of natural resources
y Sedentism
y Wild wheat harvested- some set aside for immediate consumption- rest; stored to supply the
remainder of the year
y Grain diet= construction of roasters, grinders, storage pits by some Mesolithic ppl- as well as
solid, fairly permanent housing
y Once village was built- ppl reluctant to leave
y The Natufians of the Near East
y Inhibited caves and rock shelters- built villages on the slopes of Mount Carmel in Israel
y Eynan: stratified site containing remains of three villages in sequence- one atop another
y Each village- 50 circular pit houses
y Tool suggest- Natufians harvested wild grain intensively
y Stored surplus crop (in plastered storage pits)
y Exploited hunting animals such as gazelles
y Food collection based not only on a intensive use of stationary resources but increasing social
complexity
y These sites were on average 5 times larger than predecessors
y Burial patterns suggest more social differences between ppl
y Although wild cereal resources appear to have enabled the Natufians to live in permanent
villages- their diet seemed to suffer- nutritional deficiency found in tooth enamel
Mesoamerica
y Palaeo- Indian period- 10k YA
y Ppl began to expand the range of plants and animals they relied upon
y The Archaic Peoples of Highland Mesoamerica
y Shift from big game hunting to broader use of resources
y About 8K YA archaic ppls- moved seasonally between communities of two different sizes=
y (1) Macrobands: 15-30 residents
y (2) Microbands: 2-5 residents
y Macrobands- located near seasonally abundant resources, Microbands- were inhibited
seasonally; by single family
y No evidence of social differences among the Archaic ppls of highland Mesoamerica
y Lifestyles remained much like the simple and egalitarian ones of the Palaeo-Indians, despite
the transition to a much broader strategy of food collection
Other Areas
y Also shifted from hunting big game to collecting many types of food before they apparently
began to practice agriculture
y Such changed occurred in SE Asia
y Africa- warmer weather, wetter environment; lakes, provided abundance of fish etc, that
allowed people to settle more permanently
y Americas- exploit variety of wild food resources
Why Did Broad-Spectrum Collecting Develop?
y Pre-agricultural switch to broad spectrum collecting- common throughout world
y Climate change-> exploitation of new resources (ex: rise in sea level-> n fish/shellfish),
(ex2: p big game)
y Overkill
Broad-Spectrum Collecting and Sedentism
y Switch to broad spectrum collecting accounts for increasing Sedentism in many areas
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Reading Notes 11-27-08 Chapter 12: Origin of Food Production and Settled Life O Beginning ~14K YA, ppl began to depend less on big game hunting and more- relatively stationed food resources (fish, shellfish, small game, wild plants) O EuropeNear East which these developments took place is called the Mesolithic O Fist clear switch over to food production- the cultivation and domestication of plants and animals in Near East (8000 BC)-> Neolithic Revolution O Sedentism: settling in a single, permanent location Food Collection and Production O Food Collection: all forms of subsistence technology in which food-getting is dependent on naturally occurring resources- wild plants and animals O Subsistence Technology: the methods human use to procure food O Foragers: ppl who subsist on the collection of naturally occurring plants and animals- also referred to as hunter and gatherers- live in marginal areas of earth (deserts, artic, tropical forests) O Food production : the form of subsistence technology in which food getting is dependent on the cultivation and domestication of plants and animals Horticulture O Horticulture: plant cultivation carried out with relatively simple tools and methods, nature replaces nutrients in the soil, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields O (1) Shifting Cultivation: a type of horticulture in which the land is worked for short periods and then left to regenerate for some years before being used again O (2) Slash and Burn Techniques : a form of shifting cultivation in which the natural vegetation is cut down and burned off. The cleared ground is used for a short time and hen left again O Most horticultures do not rely on crops alone for food- many hunt and fish O Raise domesticated animals- cattle, camels, pigs, goat, sheep O Horticulture society- simple farming techniques have tended to yield more food form a given area than is generally available to food collectors- therefore HC can support larger , densely populated communities Intensive Agriculture O Intensive Agriculture: food production characterized by the permanent cultivation of fields and made possible by the use of the plow, draft animals or machines, fertilizers, irrigation, water storage techniques, and other complex agricultural techniques Pre-Agricultural Develops Europe O Environmental changes (melting of glaciers-> dense mixed forests)- induced some pops in Europe to alter food getting strategies O No longer obtain large quantities of meat- intensive collecting of wild plants, molluscs, fish, small game O The Maglemosian Culture of Northern Europe O Settlers of N Europe- Maglemosians O To deal with new forests-> made stones axes to chop down trees and form them into various objects- Canoes, paddles (which were used for travel, fishing) O Depended mainly on hunting for food (elk, wild ox, deer, wild pig) O Tool kit included B&A www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit