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Lecture

ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Genetic Drift, Microevolution, Speciation


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Shawn Lehman

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ANT100Y1Y Outline for EVOL ANTH Lecture #2
Understand microevolution:
Genetic basis of inheritance and biological
evolution, population genetics, natural selection, &
adaptation
Understand macroevolution:
Speciation, how evolution works on grand scale, &
modern synthesis.
The Modern Synthesis of Evolution
Genetics, Chromosomes, & DNA Molecules
RNA Molecules
Proteins
DNA & Protein Production
Transcription
Synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mRNA: messenger RNA) at unwound section of DNA
with one of DNA strands serving as template. Result: genetic information encoded in DNA transferred
to RNA. mRNA carries information into cytoplasm.
Translation
tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule. Direct interface between amino-acid sequence
of protein & information in mRNA. Decodes information in mRNA. Acceptor stem where specific
amino acid is attached. Anticodon reads information in mRNA sequence by base pairing.
Genetics & Heredity
Gene
Phenotype
Genotype
Alleles
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Dominant alleles
Recessive alleles
What Actually Happened in Mendel’s F1 x F1?
Mutation
Population Genetics: Genetic Drift & Gene Flow
Natural Selection
Any consistent difference in fitness among phenotypically different biological entities.
Deterministic process involving differential reproductive success. Acts only on existing variation.
3 Modes of Selection
Directional Selection Stabilizing Selection Disruptive Selection.
Adaptation
Process Feature
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