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Lecture

ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Adapidae, Mosaic Evolution, Parapithecidae


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Shawn Lehman

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of 2
ANT100Y1Y Outline for EVOL ANTH Lecture #4
Lecture Goals
Basic morphological features of fossil primates.
General patterns of morphology and phylogenetics for fossil primates.
What a hominin is in terms of taxonomy
Morphological trends in hominin evolution:
Bipedalism
Expansion in brain size
Changes in dental/cranial features
Continental Drift: Past, Present, & Future
Time Frame and Climate
Major Epochs during Tertiary Period
Paleocene “Primates”
Paleocene & Primate-like Mammals: Plesiadapiformes
Body Size, Niche, & Diet
Recent: Plesiadapids NOT Primates
1) No postorbital bar,
2) Claws instead of nails, 3) Eyes placed on side of head, &
4) Enlarged incisors.
More Recent: Plesiadapids & Few Others ARE Primates.
Two Main Eocene Primate Families
1). Adapidae 2). Omomyidae
Oligocene Primates
Three (3) haplorhine features: Fused frontal bone, full postorbital closure, & fused
mandibular symphasis. Three taxonomic groups: Parapithecidae, Propliopithecidae, and
Platyrrhini.
South American Primates
Primates appear for first time in fossil record of South America towards late Oligocene
Origins of South American primate unclear: May have “rafted” over from Africa.
Miocene Primates
3 sequential sub-epochs for apes: Early Miocene apes, Mid Miocene apes, & Late Miocene
apes. Miocene monkeys (see textbook).
Miocene Primates
Early Miocene Mid-Miocene Late Miocene
ANT100Y1Y Outline for EVOL ANTH Lecture #4
Pliocene Primates
Geography and climate.
Two main taxa: Fossil Cercopithecinae & Fossil Colobinae.
Phylogenetic relationships: Unresolved.
Transitional Forms (Apes:Humans)?
1). Modifications of postcranial skeleton for bipedal locomotion
2). Shape and size of canines, especially in males, changes so not pointy or blade-like.
Reduction in level of sexual dimorphism in canine size.
3). Expansion of brain.
What’s a Hominin?
Morphological Trends in Hominin Evolution
Mosaic evolution: major evolutionary changes tend to take place in stages, not all at once.
Bipedalism
Increased brain size.
Intelligence.
Relative vs. absolute.
Quadrupedalism vs. Bipedalism
Changes in Hominin Brain Size
Hominin Fossils: Transitional Forms
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Orrorin tugenensis
Ardipithecus ramidus & Ardipithecis kadabba
Kenyanthropus platyops