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Lecture 5

ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Australopithecus, Australopithecus Anamensis, Australopithecine

Course Code
Shawn Lehman

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ANT100Y1Y Outline for EVOL ANTH Lecture #5
What to “Get” Today
General patterns of morphology for some
key fossil hominins. Main hypotheses on human origins.
Some Key Australopithecines: The First “Real” Hominins
Australopithecus anamensis
Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus sediba
Australopithecus aethiopicus
Australopithecus boisei
Australopithecus robustus
Laetoli Footprints
Rise of the genus Homo
Earliest evolved in Africa.
Most date 2.4 to 1.8 MYA.
First fossil member of taxon: Homo
habilis, which means “Handy man.”
Some researchers suggest that H. habilis
is “junk taxon” and that there may be
two or more species of Homo by 2.0
Species in the Genus Homo
Homo habilis.
Homo rudolfensis.
Homo erectus.
Homo ergaster.
Homo heidelbergensis.
Homo antecessor.
Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo floresiensis.
Homo sapiens.
Postcrania of Homo sapiens
Replacement Hypothesis.
One wave of human dispersal and
replacement of other congenera out of
Modern humans are descendants of
African H. sapiens.
H. neanderthalensis is evolutionary
dead end.
Multiregional Hypothesis.
No wave of H. sapiens replacements.
H. erectus most recent common ancestor
of modern humans.
H. neanderthalensis contributed to gene
pool of some modern human
Alan Templeton’s "Out of Africa Again and Again."
Analysis of multiple human genes reveals patterns of recurrent gene flow.
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