Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UTSG (50,000)
ANT (1,000)
ANT100Y1 (1,000)
Lecture 8

ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Doha Declaration, Health Belief Model, Structural Violence


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Bianca Dahl
Lecture
8

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
March 7- 2013
HIV & AIDS- Lecture 8
H uman Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV-1 (95% of global cases, more virulent) & HIV-2 (mainly in
West Africa)
A retrovirus (RNA virus that replicates inside a host cell)
Like influenza, high rate of mutation: makes vaccines difficult to
produce
Stages of Infection:
1. Acute Phase: brief period of influenza-like illness, fever,
enlarged lymph nodes. Lasts a few weeks. *most
transmission
2. Clinical Latency: prolonged period without symptoms (3-20
years)
3. AIDS: depleted immune function, opportunistic infection
(many years; depends on treatment)
AIDS
A cquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Can be diagnosed clinically: CD4+ T (an immune) cell count
below 200
Can be diagnosed based on co-infection
Most common: pneumonia, viral cancers (cervical, Kaposi’s
sarcoma), respiratory tract infections, TB
Other symptoms: wasting, diarrhea, fever, sweats
Transmission:
1. Sexual Intercourse (vaginal/anal)
Heterosexual transmission more common worldwide
Homosexual transmission more common in USA
Genital ulcers (syphilis, gonorrhea) increase chance
of transmission. SYNDEMIC
2. Needle Sharing/Contaminated Blood
drugs
blood transfusions
3. Vertical (mother-child)
pregnancy
Birth
breastfeeding
Overall, heterosexual transmission

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Ex. of a syndemic: AIDS easier to pass on if you have other STDs
(gonorrea and syphilis)
In-utero , during pregnancy or birth process (mixing of blood
between blood and baby causes baby to catch it -> to avoid this,
have a C-section, and breastfeeding, so bottle feed their kids, but
can’t always afford it).
We blame gay men
Origin of Aids
First brought to global consciousness in 1981
IV drug users and gay men showed up in American drug clinics in
San Francisco and New York with previously rare infections (rare
forms of pneumonia, skin cancer) normally found in
immunocompromised
At first thought only to affect gay men. Originally called GRID:
Gay-Related Immune Deficiency
Name changed to AIDS in 1982
Original stigma still remains, the “Other” (gay men, drug users,
Haitians)
Seems to have originated in West Africa
1910? 1930? Genetic dating methods
Oldest known blood sample (1st case) from 1959 in Zaire
Closely related to SIV: Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Rumours: sex with chimps
More likely: bushmeat? Contact with blood?
Spread to Haiti in 1960s, then to USA in 1970’s
Sexual tourism, migration
Other: anybody that is not us -> so disease was brought over
from gay men, drug users, and Haitians
Bushmeant: eating wild animals
First known sample with HIV in their blood was 50 years ago!
Started in Africa, then Spread to Haiti, then US
Stigma of “The Other”
AIDS blamed variously on:
Homosexual men
Drug users
Haitians
Africans
Prostitutes
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Moral connotation to blame, leads to discrimination
Paul Farmer calls this “The Geography of Blame” where Haiti is
blamed for bringing AIDS into the USA while ignoring role that
the West played in colonization and sexual tourism.
Those who are margilized are the most blamed.
Spread of AIDS in Africa
AIDS in Africa not discussed until it was recognized in the USA
Why was it undetected?
Lower rates of transmission among heterosexuals?
Hidden by other diseases?
Other issues: war, famine, genocide
Denial of problem (tourism)
By 1959
It was around for 20 years before we knew about it in the world
How did it exist for so long without people knowing about it?
It’s harder to transmit from heterosexuals
In Africa, there are so many other sickness
When it started in the 80s, when US was discovering AIDS, Africa
said it’s not here, otherwise they would have stigma and lose
tourism
Exploitation of Africa by the West: colonialism, slave trade,
dictatorships, guns, forced labour, mining (ex. gold, diamonds) ,
rape as a weapon of war
Disruption of family life:
Men and women displaced
Men forced to move long distances to work in plantations
(coffee, rubber, cocoa)
Temporary housing, psychological disturbances
Prostitution
Force labour= disrupted family life in Africa
AIDS Pandemic
Since the start of the pandemic, about 30 million people have
died (WHO 2012)
AIDS hasn’t killed as many people as other diseases yet
Global AIDS Prevalence 2011
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version