ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Polytomy, Evolutionary Anthropology, Cladistics

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7 Dec 2010
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ANT100Y1Y Lecture 2
Principles of Evolution
Modern Synthesis of Evolution
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how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes and population
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microevolution and macroevolution
Microevolution
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go to the smallest part
DNA ÆRNA ÆProtein
Cell
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somatic cells: most cells in body except sex cells
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gametes: sex cells
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cytoplasm: complex mix of membrane, and tiny structures called organelles
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nucleus: contains hereditary material Æchromosomes
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also called head office
Chromosomes
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paired-rod shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from gene to
gene
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whole bunch of DNA
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pull out and you can see the genetic code
DNA
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deoxyribonucleic acid
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blueprint
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molecules like twisted ladder
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4 nucleotide bases
1.
Adenine (A)
2.
Guanine (G)
3.
Thymine (T)
4.
Cytosine (C)
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A always bonds with T, and G always bonds with C
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Sugar phosphate background
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Hydrogen bonded bases
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ENTIRE complex system
RNA
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ribonucleic acid
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worker/helper
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some functions:
1.
dictate synthesis of proteins that perform variety of functions such as which
protein gets made
2.
regulate expression of other genes
3.
work with ribosomes (factory) that manufacture proteins
4.
transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins, brings in building
blocks
5.
RNA does have Thymine, instead there is Uracil
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Proteins
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linear sequence of amino acids, building blocks of cells
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ex. Haemoglobin: carries O2 around body
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each protein has specific function determined by DNA
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eg. Catalysts of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain proteins (digestion)
and many more
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ex. caffeine given to cat, can kill it if protein to break substance is not present
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we need 20 proteins to live
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some we make, others we get from other sources ex. food
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ex. Vitamin D can’tbe made in ____
Steps to make protein
1. Replication
2. Transcription: RNA makes copy of blue-print
3. Translation: RNA + ribosomes = PROTEIN
Transcription
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synthesis of single strand of RNA at unwound section of DNA with one of the DNA strand
serving as template
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result: genetic information encoded from DNA is transferred to RNA
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mRNA carries information to cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via translation
Codons
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genetic information encoded in sequence of three nucleotide determined codos
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ex. AAT or GCA
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sequence of AATTGC results in mRNA sequence: UUAACG
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code shows amino acids
Translation
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tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule
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direct interface between amino-acid sequence of protein and info in mRNA
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therefore, decodes information in mRNA
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acceptor stem is site where specific amino-acid is attached, Anticodon reads information in a
mRNA sequence by base pairing
Genetics and Heredity
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gene: chemical unit of heredity
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phenotype: observable, physical appearance of organism may or may not reflect genotype or total
genetic constitution
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genotype: the total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism
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alleles: 1 member of a pair of genes
Homozygous
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posses 2 identical genes or alleles in corresponding location or a pair of chromosomes
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ex. YY or yy
Heterozygous
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posses different genes or alleles in corresponding location or as a pair of chromosomes
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ex. Yy
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Document Summary

Modern synthesis of evolution how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes and population. Cell somatic cells: most cells in body except sex cells gametes: sex cells cytoplasm: complex mix of membrane, and tiny structures called organelles nucleus: contains hereditary material chromosomes also called head office. Chromosomes paired-rod shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from gene to gene. Whole bunch of dna pull out and you can see the genetic code deoxyribonucleic acid blueprint. 4 nucleotide bases: adenine (a, guanine (g, thymine (t, cytosine (c) A always bonds with t, and g always bonds with c. Worker/helper some functions: dictate synthesis of proteins that perform variety of functions such as which protein gets made regulate expression of other genes. 2: work with ribosomes (factory) that manufacture proteins. 4. transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins, brings in building blocks: rna does have thymine, instead there is uracil www. notesolution. com.

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