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Lecture 5

lecture 5 bio

8 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts

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Lecture 5
Hominines, Human Variation, & Forensic Anthropology
The first real humans: Australopithecines
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Australopithecines Anamensis
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Australopithecines Afarensis
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Australopithecines Africanus
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Australopithecines Aethiopicus
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Australopithecines Boisei
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Australopithecines Robustus
Australopithecines Anamensis
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Kanopoi, Kenya
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4.2 -3.9 Million Years Ago
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Tooth row is parallel (ape like)
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Partial tibia(knee bone) provides strong evidence for bipedality
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Primitive (ape like) cranial morphology and a derived (human like) postcranial morphology
Australopithecines Afarensis
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Ethiopia (Hadar, Omo and Fejej) and Tanzania (Laetoli)
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4.2 – 3 MILLION YEARS AGO
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Many specimens
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Complex morphology exhibiting some ape like traits (ex. saggittal crests) and hominine-like traits
(e.g. valgus knee)
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Single, sexually dimorphic species or 2 species
Laetoli footprints -Tanzania
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3.6 MILLION YEARS AGO here
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Demonstrate that early hominines were bipedal
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Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees
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Gait was “heel-strike” followed by “toe-off”; the way modern humans walk
AustralopithecinesAfricanus
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Various sites in South America
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3.0 -2.3 MILLION YEARS AGO
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Average brain size is 458 cc
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Dental features differ from those in Australopithecines afarenis
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Postcranial featuressimilar to those in Australopithecines afarenis
AustralopithecinesAethiopicus (Black skull)
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West Turkana, Kenya
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2.7-2.3 MILLION YEARS AGO
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Large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crests, and enormous teeth
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Remarkably primitive hominine at such a late date
AustralopithecinesBoisei
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Olduvai, Tanzania
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2.2-1.2 MILLION YEARS AGO
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“hyper-robust” hominine
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Morphology broadly similar to that seen in Australopithecines aethiopicus
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Contemporaneous with members of the genus Homo
www.notesolution.com
AustralopithecinesRobustus
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Swartkrans and Kromdraai, South America
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2-1 MILLION YEARS AGO
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Another robust form
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Small anterior teeth and large posterior teeth, which are covered in thick enamel
2 Different Forms
Gracile (thinner bones, smaller teeth) Robust (thick bones, enormous check teeth, small
brain sizes
AustralopithecinesAfarenis
AustralopithecinesAfricanus AustralopithecinesBoisei
AustralopithecinesRobustus
AustralopithecinesAethiopicus
Rise of the genus Homo
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Earliest evolved in Africa
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Most date 2.4-1.8 MILLION YEARS AGO
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First fossil member of taxon: Homo habilis, which means “Handy man”
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Some researchers suggest that Homo habilis is “junk taxon” and that there may be two or more
species of Homo by 2 MILLION YEARS AGO
Species in the Genus Homo
1. Homo habilis
2. Homo Rudolfensis
3. Homo erectus
4. Homo ergaster
5. Homo heidelbergensis
6. Homo antecessor
7. Homo neanderthalensis
8. Homo fluoresiensis
9. Homo sapiens
Homo habilis
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From sites in Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia (2.3-1.6 MILLION YEARS AGO)
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Species designation brain size and association with stone tools
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Skeletal morphology similar to contemporaneous australopithecines
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First species of Homo or junk taxon?
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May represent 2 or more different species (Homo Rudolfensis & Homo Habilis)
Homo rudolfensis
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Koobi Fora, Kenya
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Originally considered Homo habilis
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Which one is first representative of our genus? Homo habilis or Homo rudolfensis?
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Very controversial
Homo erectus
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First species in genus Homo found outside Africa (Asia and Southeast Asia)
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1.8MILLION YEARS AGO-27 THOUSAND YEARS AGO
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Brain and body size changes in lineage
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Controlled use of fire and hunting
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Early African specimens that may be different species, Homo ergaster
www.notesolution.com
Homo ergaster
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Earliest African specimens
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Turkana boy: adult height estimate, limb proportions, and predicted strength
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Debate on Homo erectus or Homo ergaster as direct ancestor of modern humans
Homo heidelbergensis
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Europe and Africa
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700-130 THOUSAND YEARS AGO
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Compared to Homo erectus &Homo heidelbergensis
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Lower dentition
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Larger brain and body size
Homo antecessor
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Spain
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1.2 MILLION YEARS AGO 800 THOUSAND YEARS AGO
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Controversy surrounding species designation
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Type specimen is juvenile
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1st hominine in Europe?
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Underground findings of stones and more proof needed
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One fossil finding can change everything
Homo neanderthalensis
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Europe and Middle East (300-35 THOUSAND YEARS AGO)
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Buried people in graves with “offerings” (fragrant flowers)
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Limb bones heavily marked by muscular attachments; thick walls of cortical bone and large
joints. Neanderthalensis extremely muscular, highly active and athletic by modern human
standards
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Genetics of neanderthalensis versus modern humans point to a 700 THOUSAND YEARS AGO
separation and considerable genetic variation
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Some consensus: neanderthalensis represent unique species: Homo neanderthalensis
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Brain size largest of any kind
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Could have been pushed to extinction by humans
Homo fluoresiensis
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Flores island, Indonesia
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95-13 THOUSAND YEARS AGO
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Small body size (ca. 1.06 m)
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Small brain size
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Primitive and derived features
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Not aberrant individual; rather unique species
Homo sapiens
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160 THOUSAND YEARS AGO in Africa. 100 THOUSAND YEARS AGO in Middle East and
40 THOUSAND YEARS AGOin Europe
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Controlled use of fire
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Hunting and gathering
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Cultural remains, including increasingly complex stone tools
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 5 Hominines, Human Variation, & Forensic Anthropology The first real humans: Australopithecines - Australopithecines Anamensis - Australopithecines Afarensis - Australopithecines Africanus - Australopithecines Aethiopicus - Australopithecines Boisei - Australopithecines Robustus Australopithecines Anamensis - Kanopoi, Kenya - 4.2 -3.9 Million Years Ago - Tooth row is parallel (ape like) - Partial tibia(knee bone) provides strong evidence for bipedality - Primitive (ape like) cranial morphology and a derived (human like) postcranial morphology Australopithecines Afarensis - Ethiopia (Hadar, Omo and Fejej) and Tanzania (Laetoli) - 4.2 3 MILLION YEARS AGO - Many specimens - Complex morphology exhibiting some ape like traits (ex. saggittal crests) and hominine-like traits (e.g. valgus knee) - Single, sexually dimorphic species or 2 species Laetoli footprints - Tanzania - 3.6 MILLION YEARS AGO here - Demonstrate that early hominines were bipedal - Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees - Gait was heel-strike followed by toe-off; the way modern humans walk Australopithecines Africanus - Various sites in South America - 3.0 -2.3 MILLION YEARS AGO - Average brain size is 458 cc - Dental features differ from those in Australopithecines afarenis - Postcranial features similar to those in Australopithecines afarenis Australopithecines Aethiopicus (Black skull) - West Turkana, Kenya - 2.7-2.3 MILLION YEARS AGO - Large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crests, and enormous teeth - Remarkably primitive hominine at such a late date Australopithecines Boisei - Olduvai, Tanzania - 2.2-1.2 MILLION YEARS AGO - hyper-robust hominine - Morphology broadly similar to that seen in Australopithecines aethiopicus - Contemporaneous with members of the genus Homo www.notesolution.com
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