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Christopher Watts

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Anthro Lecture nov 20 08 23:33
mtDNA evidence goes against the multiregional model
modern humans derive from a 200 kya African population
genetic material is most diverse within African populations
8 base pair differences among extant populations (30 kya of development)
Upper Paleolithic
New tool kits based on antler bone and wood
Deelopment of aurignacian tool tradition after 35 kya
Includes blade tools burins and microliths
Emergence of indirect percussion and pressure flaking techniques
Blade Technology
Often involved indirect percussion/punch technique as well as pressure flaking/retouch
Characteristics: long narrow and parallel sides
Increased efficiency, decreased waste
Pressure flaking (retouch)
Tools: Burin-a chisel-like tool used to cut, incise and shape materials like bone antler and wood
It was often made on a flake
Eurasia: essentially blades that have been retouched and then hafted(placed in handles) one blunt
Served as spear barbs arrow points , small knives and scrapers
Also developed: the atlatl or spearthrower
Lever used to propel a spear
Greater accuracy, thrust and distance
Attached to the spear with a bone or antler hook
Much of modern Europe and Canada covered in glaciers
Gradient (N-S); tundra/steppe boreal forests broadleaf forests
Important: sea levels some 90 mtrs lower in places
Linked the UK with mainland Europe and Siberia with Alaska
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