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Lecture 2

ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Messenger Rna, Macroevolution, Microevolution

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Shawn Lehman

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Lecture 2: Principles of Evolution
1. Understand microevolution
- genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution
-population genetics
-natural selection
2. Understand macroevolution
-What’s cladistics?
-How to read a cladogram
Modern synthesis of evolution
- focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and populations
-microevolution and macroevolution
-Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells)
-Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum/egg)
-Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called organelles
-Nucleus: contains hereditary material known as chromosomes
-paired and rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from generation
to generation
-deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic info that codes for the synthesis of proteins
-four bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)
-NASA (2011) reported that meteorites found on earth contain nucleobases (such as adenine and
guanine) may have been formed in outer space
RNA (Ribonucleic acid) molecules:
1. Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body
2. Regulate expression of other genes
3. Work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of proteins
4. Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creation of proteins
-linear sequences of amino acids: building blocks of cells
-each protein has specific function determined by “blueprint” stored in DNA
-for example: catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain protein
(digestion); and many more
-synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mRNA: Messenger RNA) at unwound section of DNA with
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