Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSG (50,000)
ANT (1,000)
ANT100Y1 (1,000)

Principles of Evolution

Course Code
Christopher Watts

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Anthropology September 30th, 2010.
Principles of Evolution
1.Understand microevolution
Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution
Population genetics
Natural selection
2.Understand macroevolution
How to read a cladogram
How evolution works on a grand scale
The modern synthesis
The Modern Synthesis of Evolution:
Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and population
1.Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells)
2.Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg])
3.Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called
4.Nucleus: contains hereditary material known as chromosomes
Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits form
generation to generation
Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes
for the synthesis of proteins
Four bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine, (C), Thymine (T)
A always goes with T, G always goes with C
RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Molecules:
1)Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body
2)Regulate expression of other genes
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Anthropology September 30th, 2010.
3)Work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of
4)Transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins
Linear sequence of amino acids; building blocks of cells
Each protein has specific function determined by ‘blueprint’ stored in DNA
E.g. catalyst of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain
protein (digestion); and many more
Hemoglobin – transports oxygen
Need 20 amino acids to live – get through living/breathing
Synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mRNA: messenger RNA) at unwound
section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template
Result: genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA
mRNA carries information
Genetic information encoded in sequences of three nucleotides termed codons
Four nucleotides of RNA are: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil
(u), which replaces thymine (T) in DNA template
TYPO page 27: “Thus a nucleotide sequence of AATTGC on one side of the DNA
results in a corresponding mRNA sequence of UUAACG
tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule
Direct interface between amino-acid sequence of protein & information in mRNA.
Therefore it decodes information in mRNA
Acceptor stem is site where specific amino acid is attached. Anticodon reads
information in a mRNA sequence by base pairing.
Genetic & Heredity
Gene : chemical unit of heredity
Phenotype : observable physical appearance of organism; may or may not reflect
genotype or total genetic constitution
Genotype : the total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism
Alleles : one member of a pair of genes
Homozygous : possessing two identical genes or alleles in corresponding locations
on a pair of chromosomes. For example: YY or yy
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version