Principles of Evolution

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9 Feb 2011
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Anthropology September 30th, 2010.
Principles of Evolution
Goals:
1.Understand microevolution
Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution
Population genetics
Natural selection
Adaptation
2.Understand macroevolution
Speciation
How to read a cladogram
How evolution works on a grand scale
The modern synthesis
The Modern Synthesis of Evolution:
Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and population
Microevolution
Macroevolution
DNARNAProtein
Cell:
1.Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells)
2.Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg])
3.Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called
organelles
4.Nucleus: contains hereditary material known as chromosomes
Chromosome:
Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits form
generation to generation
DNA:
Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes
for the synthesis of proteins
Four bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine, (C), Thymine (T)
A always goes with T, G always goes with C
RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Molecules:
1)Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body
2)Regulate expression of other genes
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Anthropology September 30th, 2010.
3)Work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of
proteins
4)Transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins
Proteins:
Linear sequence of amino acids; building blocks of cells
Each protein has specific function determined by ‘blueprint’ stored in DNA
E.g. catalyst of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain
protein (digestion); and many more
Hemoglobin – transports oxygen
Need 20 amino acids to live – get through living/breathing
(1:30)
Transcription:
Synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mRNA: messenger RNA) at unwound
section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template
Result: genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA
mRNA carries information
Codons:
Genetic information encoded in sequences of three nucleotides termed codons
Four nucleotides of RNA are: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil
(u), which replaces thymine (T) in DNA template
TYPO page 27: “Thus a nucleotide sequence of AATTGC on one side of the DNA
results in a corresponding mRNA sequence of UUAACG
Translation:
tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule
Direct interface between amino-acid sequence of protein & information in mRNA.
Therefore it decodes information in mRNA
Acceptor stem is site where specific amino acid is attached. Anticodon reads
information in a mRNA sequence by base pairing.
Genetic & Heredity
Gene : chemical unit of heredity
Phenotype : observable physical appearance of organism; may or may not reflect
genotype or total genetic constitution
Genotype : the total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism
Alleles : one member of a pair of genes
Homozygous : possessing two identical genes or alleles in corresponding locations
on a pair of chromosomes. For example: YY or yy
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Document Summary

Goals: understand microevolution, genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution, population genetics, natural selection, adaptation, understand macroevolution, speciation, how to read a cladogram, how evolution works on a grand scale, the modern synthesis. The modern synthesis of evolution: focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and population, microevolution, macroevolution. Cell: somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells, gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg], cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called organelles, nucleus: contains hereditary material known as chromosomes. Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits form generation to generation. Dna: deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for the synthesis of proteins, four bases: adenine (a), guanine (g), cytosine, (c), thymine (t) Rna (ribonucleic acid) molecules: dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body, regulate expression of other genes www. notesolution. com.

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