Hominins, human Variation, & Forensic Anthropology

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9 Feb 2011
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Australopithecus anamensis
-Kenya
-4.2-4.3 million years ago
-Tooth row is parallel ( ape like)
-Partial tibia provides strong evidence for bipedality
-Primitive (ape like) cranial morphology and a derived (human like) postcranial
morphology
Australopithecus afarensis
-Ethiopia and Tanzania
-4.2-3.0 MYA
-Many specimens
-Complex morphology exhibiting some ape like traits (e.g. sagittal crests) and hominin
like traits (e.g. valgus knee)
-Single, sexually dimorphic species or two species?
footprints
-Demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal
-Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees
-Gait was “heel strike followed by “toe off”; the way modern humans walk
Australopithecus africanus
-Various sites in south Africa
-3.0-2.3 mya
-Average brain size is 458cc.
-Dental features differ from those in A. Afarensis
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-Postcranial features similar to those in A. Afarensis
Australopithecus aethiopicus
-Kenya
-2.7-2.3 mya
-Large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crests, and enormous teeth
-Remarkably primitive hominin at such a late date
Australopithecus boisei
-Tanzania
-2.2-1.2mya
-hyper-robust hominin
-Morphology broadly similar to that seen in A. Aethiopicus
-Contemporaneous with members of the genus Homo
Australopithecus robustus
-South Africa
-2-1mya
-Another robust form
-Small anterior teeth and large posterior teeth, which are covered in thick enamel
Gracile and robust forms?
Gracile Australopithecines
-Australopithecus afarensis
-Australopithecus africanus
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Robust Australopithecines
-Australopithecus boisei
-Australopithecus robusts
-Australopithecus
Rise of the gene homo
-Earliest evolved in east Africa
-Most date 2.4-1.8 mya
-First fossel member of taxon: Homo habilis, which means “handy man”
-Some researchers suggest that H. Habilis isjunk taxon” and that there may be two or
more species of homo
Homo habilis
-Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia
-Species designation: brain size and association with stone tools
-Skeletal morphology similar to contemporary Australopithecines
-First species of homo or junk taxon?
-May represent 2 or more different species (h. Rudolfensis & h. Habilis)
Homo rudolfensis
-Kenya
-Originally considered h. Habilis
-H. Rudolfensis or h. Habilis first
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Document Summary

Tooth row is parallel ( ape like) Primitive (ape like) cranial morphology and a derived (human like) postcranial morphology. Complex morphology exhibiting some ape like traits (e. g. sagittal crests) and hominin like traits (e. g. valgus knee) Single, sexually dimorphic species or two species? footprints. Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees. Gait was heel strike followed by toe off ; the way modern humans walk. Dental features differ from those in a. afarensis www. notesolution. com. Postcranial features similar to those in a. afarensis. Large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crests, and enormous teeth. Remarkably primitive hominin at such a late date. Morphology broadly similar to that seen in a. aethiopicus. Contemporaneous with members of the genus homo. Small anterior teeth and large posterior teeth, which are covered in thick enamel. First fossel member of taxon: homo habilis, which means handy man .

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