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ANT - L03 [Sept 30 2010]

Course Code
Christopher Watts

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L03 ± Principles of Evolution
x how does genetics directly relate to evolutionary anthropology
x Understand microevolution
o Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution
o Population genetics
o Natural selection
o Adaption
x Understand macroevolution
o Speciation
o How to read a cladogram
o How evolution works on a grand scale
o The modern synthesis
x 5 questions PER lecture on midterm; what is the big picture?
The Modern Synthesis of Evolution
x Focuses on how evolution works at phenotypes, genes, and populations
x Microevolution
o What is being changed or altered under evolutionary forces
x Macroevolution
x DNA Æ RNA Æ protein
x Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells)
x Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg])
x Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, and tiny structures called organelles
x Nucleus: contains hereditary material, known as chromosomes
x Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits
from generation to generation
o A whole bunch of DNA tightly wound around itself
x All species have a specific amount of chromosomes
x Deoxyribonucleic: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for
the synthesis of proteinsWKHEOXHSULQWGRHVQ¶WGRDQ\WKLQJ
x Four bases:
o Adenine (A)
o Guanine (G)
o Cytosine ( C)
o Thymine (T)
x A always goes with T; G always goes with C
o Hydrogen bounded bases
o Sugar phosphate backbone

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RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Molecules
1. Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body
2. Regulate expression of other genes
3. Work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of
4. Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creation of proteins
x Does all the work in actually creating proteins
x RNA is the
x Linear sequences of amino acids; building blocks of cells
o A bunch of amino acids joined together essentially
o Ie. Catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which
contain protein (digestion); and many more
o A specific protein breaks done caffeine
DNA (replication) Æ transcription Æ RNA Æ translation Æ protein
You can get errors in DNA replication which can cause complications.
Transcription Æ RNA makes a copy of the blueprint on the DNA
Translation Æ work with ribosomes to create protein
x Synthesis of single strang of ribonucleic acid (mRNA: messenger RNA) at
unwound section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template
o RNA copies one side of the DNA and then leaves the nucleus to
x RESULT: genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA
x mRNA carries information into cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via
x genetic information encoded in sequence of three nucleotides termed condons
x Four nucleotides of RNA are:
o Adenine (A)
o Guanine (G)
o Cytosine (C )
o Uracil (U) which replaces thymine (T) in DNA template
side of the DNA results in a corresponding mRNA sequence of
Code gets read 3 at a time: determines structure of the protein
x tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule:
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