ANT - L08 [Nov 04 2010]

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15 Feb 2011
School
Department
Course
L08 ± Archaeology (2)
(Re)construction:
x ³FDUHIXODQDO\VLVRIWKHHQYLURQPHQWLQZKLFK«PDWHULDOVDUHIRXQGLQRUGHUWR
say something about the circumstances E\ZKLFKWKDWPDWHULDOFDPHWREHWKHUH´
(Paul Bahn)
o Circumstances ± natural and human agencies
(1) Data Processing
x Cleaning
x [Conservation]
o May or may not be necessary; depends on the artifact class
o 6RPHWKLQJVDUHGXUDEOHDQGGRQ¶WUHDFWWRFKDQJHVLQWKHHQYLURQPHQW
o Employed mostly for fragile things
x Cataloguing
(2) Data Organization
x Involves classification
o Process by which we assign items to categories (classes) in a pre-arranged
system
o Rules determine whether an item belongs to a class
Rules determine the inclusiveness of each class
x Typology is a popular method of classification and analysis
o ClasVLILFDWLRQRIDUWLIDFWµVWDWHV¶EDVHGRQVRPHFULWHULRQRUFULWHULD
x Were the artifact types we recognize today also recognized in the past?
o Emic ± µLQVLGHVYLHZ¶RIFXOWXUHWKHW\SHZDVUHFRJQL]HGE\LWV
manufacturer as meaningful
o Etic ± µRXWVLGHU¶VYLHZ¶RIFXOWXUHWKHW\SHLVRQO\PHDQLQJIXOWRWKH
analyst
x Typically, we distinguish between:
o Artifacts made from:
Stone (Lithics)
Clay (Ceramics)
Metal
Bonues (Faunal)
Plants (e.g., baskets, wooden tools)
o Ecofacts
Faunal remains ± animal bones not used as tools
Floral remains ± plant materials not used as tools
(3) Analysis (Artifacts)
x Lithic Tools
o Display evidence of reduction
o Subdivided into:
Chipped or flaked lithic tools
x µ)OLQWNDSSLQJ¶± one of earliest industrial arts
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Document Summary

N . ,701:,3,88419003;74320393. 2,907,8,7014:3/347/0794 say something about the circumstances -. 9,92,907,. ,2094-09070 (paul bahn: circumstances natural and human agencies (1) data processing. [conservation: may or may not be necessary; depends on the artifact class, 938,70/:7,-0,3//43970,. 994. ,30839003;7432039, employed mostly for fragile things. Involves classification: process by which we assign items to categories (classes) in a pre-arranged system, rules determine whether an item belongs to a class. S rules determine the inclusiveness of each class. N typology is a popular method of classification and analysis: clas81. ,94341,791,. 989,908-,80/438420. 79074347. 7907, N were the artifact types we recognize today also recognized in the past: emic 38/078;041. :9:7090950,870. 430/-98 manufacturer as meaningful: etic 4:98/078;041. N typically, we distinguish between: artifacts made from: S plants (e. g. , baskets, wooden tools: ecofacts. S faunal remains animal bones not used as tools. S floral remains plant materials not used as tools (3) analysis (artifacts) N lithic tools: display evidence of reduction, subdivided into: N emerged with homo habilis some 2. 5 mya.

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