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Lecture

ANT - L08 [Nov 04 2010]


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts

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L08 ± Archaeology (2)
(Re)construction:
x ³FDUHIXODQDO\VLVRIWKHHQYLURQPHQWLQZKLFK«PDWHULDOVDUHIRXQGLQRUGHUWR
say something about the circumstances E\ZKLFKWKDWPDWHULDOFDPHWREHWKHUH´
(Paul Bahn)
o Circumstances ± natural and human agencies
(1) Data Processing
x Cleaning
x [Conservation]
o May or may not be necessary; depends on the artifact class
o 6RPHWKLQJVDUHGXUDEOHDQGGRQ¶WUHDFWWRFKDQJHVLQWKHHQYLURQPHQW
o Employed mostly for fragile things
x Cataloguing
(2) Data Organization
x Involves classification
o Process by which we assign items to categories (classes) in a pre-arranged
system
o Rules determine whether an item belongs to a class
Rules determine the inclusiveness of each class
x Typology is a popular method of classification and analysis
o ClasVLILFDWLRQRIDUWLIDFWµVWDWHV¶EDVHGRQVRPHFULWHULRQRUFULWHULD
x Were the artifact types we recognize today also recognized in the past?
o Emic ± µLQVLGHVYLHZ¶RIFXOWXUHWKHW\SHZDVUHFRJQL]HGE\LWV
manufacturer as meaningful
o Etic ± µRXWVLGHU¶VYLHZ¶RIFXOWXUHWKHW\SHLVRQO\PHDQLQJIXOWRWKH
analyst
x Typically, we distinguish between:
o Artifacts made from:
Stone (Lithics)
Clay (Ceramics)
Metal
Bonues (Faunal)
Plants (e.g., baskets, wooden tools)
o Ecofacts
Faunal remains ± animal bones not used as tools
Floral remains ± plant materials not used as tools
(3) Analysis (Artifacts)
x Lithic Tools
o Display evidence of reduction
o Subdivided into:
Chipped or flaked lithic tools
x µ)OLQWNDSSLQJ¶± one of earliest industrial arts
www.notesolution.com
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