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Lecture

ANT100 MARCH 15.docx


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Boddy

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ANT100 MARCH 15, 2012
Why perform circimcison, remove female parts of boys and male parts of girls, semi adrogenous
genitialia need to be socialized or finished, no where in literature female circumcision found alon
complementary things, we do find male circumcsision alone
Hort and pastorial continuum
- Tribes or bands etc talk about ideal types,
- Hort and past from range from egaliatrain produce
- Low surplus production
- Resourcrs circulate by simple kin group affiliation: recipoprocity
- Giving of gift not returned in time would destroy relationship, invite people over and not
returned for a year relationship not going anywhere
- Low end of social complexity and at top end more-
- Heiracrchal
- Modet surplus production for exchange
- Ranked kin group (up in social groups) not autonomous or egalitarian
- Heredity chiefs different from big men, occupy office, office is a instituition last incombant
people cycle through office but office remains same with American
- Hered chiefs, not elected but born into position ascribed statues, family chiefly line produce
leaders, first born male auto chief or kin
- Prince Charles die then stays within family line
- Reciprocity and redistribution
- Getting into soicities high pop and occupy more regions and new form of exchange comes in to
from periphery to center, concept of center then redistributed to variety of groups
(redistribution), social complexity from minimal to far more elaborate
Chiefdoms
- Ask y social complexity from simple to complex, much with avaialbale with resourvces and po
pressure
- Ideal type
- Link several ecological zones, coast lands, farms, exchange of products from one place to
another
- Co ordinate distribution across zones
- Surplus produced for exchange more yams to send to coast for fish, producing for exchange
- Kin groups ranked vis a vis each other
- Heredity chief enduring office various forms
- Big man is an entrepeunar not inheret role but achieves it, clever to use family resources to
invest makes personal contracts, lend out animals, mocka lent out piglets to people to get back
things

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- Big man focus regional exchange not in heredity exchange maintains as long gives thing away,
resources to tie other people to him in diatic exchanges whicha re recipocral
- Has to be persuasive, personal qualities elevate him and give him prestige, come from places
raise pig lose all pigs and exchanges not work out no longer big man he becomes rubbish man
- INTERmediate forms of chiefs and big man, don’t generate prestige for themselves or family or
long distant exchanged chief lose statues overthrown and replaced by another family member
- Trobiand islands
- Precolonial Hawaii more heriacrchal then trobiand, primogeniture, lineages ranked on based of
relative age
- Precolonial Hawaii chief made war and also diety, failed on warfare would be killed, whole
family lose rank, rank move to another member of the line
- Tuareg camel pastrolists, sahara, mobile chiefdoms, matrelinal lived in mobile ciefdoms and
chief act like liason of pastrol group to surrounding oasis farming communities
- Chiefd coordin redistribution of surplus as well as long distance trade and defence
Trobrainaad islands villages
- Nucleated, people live in concentrated areas surrounded by farms, center is yam house surplus
stored chief controls these places for feasts to get people work together, chief gathers followers
contrinuted to yam house chief controls cooks it up and gives it ti pay for labour
- Low surplus places, don’t give away or translate surplus to give will prestige obligation most
pretigous thing to do is to let them rot, sign to world they are well fed not need food and
fulfilled obligations
Redistribution
- Chiefs village to river farms, coastal village, yam farms, garden farms
- Govt of Canada to you, me, mom, dad (income tax0
Pastoral societies
- Range from relatively egalatrian tribes to heiracrch mobile chifdeoms not sedentary but mobile
(Iraq and iran) chiefs coordinate movement, mediate conflict, oversee trade
- Composed of flexible units, which can dissolve and reform
Whay the range of social forms among past and hort?
- Ask are resources (farmable land) eg mena d of production freely available ot restreicted by pop
pressures neighboring grouos?
- Physical barriers to human (and animal) mobility (people hand in land and pop limity)?
- Can leave if disagree with neighbours? Can we survive? Will it be more or less costly to stay?
- Kinship and marriage:build in obligations to coopaerate, share and reciprocate (moral economy)
Personalized exchange: reciprocity, redistributions

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- Personalized, depend on relations between people, indi, different from way exchange occurs in
Canada in personal market, not exchange with people produce food, grocery store bought
wholesale, exchange inperosnal
- Hortic and past surpluses are perishable (in small scale society) have to give away or will rot
- How used ? shared: feasting, maintain relationships; saved in the short term: smoking, salting,
drying but still subject to claims of kin
- Converted to special purpose mony eg livetock 0 have excess yams feed to pigs and reproduce,
special purpose money in livestock pigs live longer then yam remain fresh ise to cement
marriages (bridewealth, dowry), loan to clients (big man) or convert back to food
- Other loan out, or hard times convert animals back to food
Stateless societies and social control
- See way differ from us therefore stateless been very succesfuk
- Achieve integration, peace through norms, trads, moral obligation
- Sanctions: gossip, shame, witdrawl of support, banishment (no big boot0 naturaliztion taken for
grantedness
- “lack” central coercive power
- However all today exist within boundaries of (nation) states, suffer restraint from constraints of
central gov, like bushmen, artifacts of European nation of state imposed on every place in world
Agricututure
- Intensive cult: perm fields, continuous cycling of crops, shorter fallow periods, pop larger and
more sedentary, need for cont use
- Labour more demanding: “inputs” – fertiliziig, terracing and leveling fields, building irrigation
channels and dams, monogamy of crops, and health of agric pop not robust not as much as
hunter gatherer health
- Benefit more land for prodcition feed more people but not more nutrioutsly
- Requires coord of labour, co op, managed by centralized auth (freed from subsitence labour)
need for co op
- Specialized technology ploughs, irrigation machinery, tractors
- Terrace coffee fields in yemen, labour instensive to build and maintain
- Rice terraces in bali Indonesia, water in bali it down in sequence
- Irrigating sudan, build dam and break down
Sig of land
- Meaning of land shifted,
- Gradually shifts as one moves along the subsitencne continuum
- From a location where resources found, a site that people traverse (foraging, ecxrtneisive hort,
pasto)
- To a resource in itself (intensive hortm agri) subject to greater kabour investment,
enhancements, defense - permanent fields allegiance not only to kin but also to place
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