Lecture 2 Biological.docx

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11 Apr 2012
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ANT100 September 29, 2011
LECTURE 2: PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTION
Modern Synthesis of Evolution
-phenotypes (physical make up), genes, and populations
- microevolution, macroevolution
DNA RNA PROTEIN
CELL
Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells)
Gametes: sex cells
Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called
organelles
Nucleus: contains hereditary material, known as chromosomes
CHROMOSOMES
- paired rod shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits
from generation to generation
-molecules strung together (unwind, results in strings of DNA)
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for
the synthesis of proteins
- Four bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) (A&T go
together, C&G go together)
-sugar phosphate backbone, hydrogen-bonded bases
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid: dictates synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of
functions in body, regulates expression of other genes, works with structures in cell
(ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of proteins, transport amino acids to
ribosomes for the creation of proteins
- determines how genes are expressed based on which protein is created (which
code in DNA)
- A, G, C, Uracil (U)
PROTEIN
- linear sequences of amino acids; building blocks of cells
-each protein has specific function determined by blueprint stored in DNA
- catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain protein;
and many more
DNA & PROTEIN PRODUCTION
- replication
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