ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Lorisoidea, Neotropical Realm

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11 Apr 2012
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ANT100 October 6, 2011
Lecture 3: Primate Behaviour and Ecology
Lecture Goals
How do primates differ from other mammals
Taxonomic characteristics of living primates
Primate ecology and sociality
Conservation issues for primates
Primate Characteristics
Mammals (warm blooded(regulates body temperature through
physiology), having hair and feeding milk to its young)
Differ from mammals by having
o Grasping hands and feet
o Collarbone (calvicle)
o Radius and ulna (cross to make an x)
o Forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision
Primate Activity Patterns
Nocturnal: active at night
Diurnal: active during day
Crepuscular: active at dawn and dusk
Cathemeral: active any time of day or night
Primate Taxonomy
Order, Suborder, Infraorder, Superfamily, Family
Stepsirhine (Suborder)
Dental tooth comb
Moist rhinarium (west nose- serves to sample air for bacteria, strong
sense of smell to interact with environment)
Unfused mandibular (jaw) and frontal symphases (forehead) 2 parts
(right/left sides) unfused
Tapetum lucidum (cells in back of eye that operate as
reflector….refocuses light to see in the dark)
Postorbitol (behind orbit) bar
Two super families: lemuroidea and lorisoidea
Lemuroidea
Madagascar and Comoro islands
Arboreal (in trees) quadrupeds and leapers; some are partially terrestrial
Many small-bodied species are nocturnal
Female dominance (social settings)
Varied diet
Lorisoidea
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ANT100 October 6, 2011
Found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia
Lorises and galagos (nocturnal, female mothers have a neurotoxin saliva
to protect offspring)
Arboreal quadrupeds
Nocturnal
Varied diet
Haplorhine (suborder)
Dry nose
Retinal fovea
Postorbital closure
Fused mandibular and frontal symphases (cf. Tarsiers)
Three infraorders tarsiiformes, platyrrhini, catarrhimi
Tarsiiformes
One genus (Tarsius)
Found in Southeast Asia (eg. Philippines)
Small body size (80-130 g)
Relatively large eyes (larger than the brain), with fused lower leg bones
(tibia and fibula)
Entirely faunivorous
Platyrrhines (Neotropical Monkeys)
Central and South America
Body massL 110 g 11.4 kg
Cebidae, Atelidae, and Callitrichidae
Prehensile tail in few species
Most entirely arboreal
Catarrhines (Old-Word Monkeys and Apes)
Africa, Asia and Southeast Asia
Body mass: 1kg 175 kg
Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae, and Hominidae
Variety of diets, social organizations, and adaptations
Human Beings (Homo sapiens)
Human characterized by:
o Habitual, upright, bipedal posture and locomotion
o Use of forelimb almost entirely for manipulation, carrying and
throwin; rarely used for locomotion
o Enormous expansion of brain volume
o Reduction of teeth, jaws and chewing muscles
Body Size
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