The matrices in which artificats, ecofacts, sites and other human-manufactured features or results of past human action are found. Not necessarily found below ground + eg: "cultural landscapes" Chaco phenomenon the extensive inter-regional exchange, 650 kms of roads, stairways, ramps in nw nm ca. Ad 1100 (in new mexico) + trade exchange activities existed within people who lived within this site of the world + one of the cultural landscapes. Spatial + activity areas + sites + regions. Any portable object whose form has been shaped (ie: manufactured or modified) by way of human activity + egyptian art, pottery. Non-portable material evidence of human activity (eg: hearths, storage pits, postholes) + ie: kelly site excavation plan + rock art part of "cultural landscape" Can be further subdivided into macrofossils and microfossils. + visible to the naked eye (ie: kernel of corn) + can be retrieved through flotation or normal excavation procedures. Lighter materials float to the surface, caught in sieves.