Anthropology March 22nd.docx

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Anthropology March 22nd
Ambilineal: affiliation is determined in each generation, often at marriage, then typically closed. E.g pre-
colonial Hawaii. Choice depends on parent’s rank, availability of land/resources
Cognatic: a feeling of affiliation with both
Decent and Subsistence
- Matrilineal societies:
- Often horticultural, agricultural ( more in past, e.g Acient Nubia), some herders, some complex
foragers
- Correlated (imperfectly) with strong female role in subsistence, especially farming
- E.g the Iroquois, In Asia the linar (household formation is typically around the relation of
brothers and sisters, the Asante, twaric (sahara area), one of the few pastoralists that follow a
matrilineal principle
- In Sahelian Africa, Indonesia, India: matrilineal principle has been eroded or added to by
patrilineal influences of Christianity and muslim
Patrilineal Societies:
- Horticultural, agricultural, herding
- Correlated (imperfectly) with strong male role in defense
- More widespread than matrilineal today
Ambilineal Societies:
- Horticultural, agricultural, complex foragers e.g Hawaii, Samoa, Maori, Bisaya (NW Borneo)
- Correlated (imperfectly) with restricted environments and competition for resources
- Optional affiliation (often with a patrilineal tendency) facilitates periodic redistribution of
people and productive resources.
Hawaiian kin terms: generational
- Ego ( your place in the family time line)
- Cousin are in fact siblings
- Parents siblings are also parents to ego
- Emphasizes differences between generations and similarities withi nthem; may also distinguish
birth order (i.e rank) and ( as here) sex. Boradly classificatory. Common with Cognatic/ambiline
descent groups.
- In matrilineal and patrilineal societies much finer distinction are made between cousins as it
may present marriage rules for example
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Anthropological shorthand for kin
M- Mother
F- Father
D-Daaughter
B-Brother
Z- sister
H- Husband
W- wife
Combinations of these types allow us to differentiate amoung kin e.g those we call cousins
Used so one can know who is an appropriate spose
e.g FZD: father’s sister’s daughter (cousin)
Marriage
- Is frequently arranged by parents and other kin
- As an alliance between descent groups, families
- Lineages/cans may exchange spouses (esp. in herding, horticultural societies)
- Often cemented by exchange of wealth ( productive resources such as livestock): bridewealth or
dowry
- Exogamy : marriage outside a specified
- Endogamy: marriage inside a specified group
- Positive marriage rule: you must/should marry someone who stands in a specific relationship to
you, often a type of cousin
- Found in many societies, not all
- Negative marriage rule: you must not marry certain kin
- Supported by a societies incest prohibition
- Some form found in all societies (universal) but content varies
Exhange/arranged marriages:
- Link estates, resources, (and funds of ‘social capital’ such as honor), in desired ways
- Spread economic risk
- Integrate different descent groups in the present and over time
- Ideally provide for a level of certainty and social insurance (“marry out or die out”)
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