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2 Apr 2011
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What is Complex Society?
๎€Typically, there are indicators โ€“ a โ€œcomplex of cultural phenomenaโ€™ (Flannery 1972) โ€“
such asโ€ฆ writing, metallurgy, Predictive Science (e.g, astronomy, mathematic), Large
population aggregates; urbanization, Social stratification (classes), Occupational
specialization, e.g. full-time craft specialist, Monumental architecture and public works
๎€Importantly, not all these indicators are present in all ancient civilization
oE.g., no writing in Ancient South America (Peru)
๎€Quipo
oE.g., little evidence for ostentatious display of power in Harappan (Indus Valley)
civilization
Indicators โ€“ Writing
๎€Most early writing took the form of conventionalized and abstract โ€˜pictorialโ€™ forms
๎€The letter โ€˜Aโ€™ for example is thought to descended from a Semitic stylized drawing of the
head of an ox
๎€Similarly the Chinese character ri (โ€˜sunโ€™) at one time more closely resembled the sun
๎€Later developments involve Syllabic / Alphabetic systems
oSyllabic โ€“ written symbol for each syllable
๎€E.g., cuneiform (Mesopotamia) and hieroglyphics (Egypt)
oAlphabetic โ€“ written symbol for each vowel and consonant
๎€E.g., Greek alphabet โ€“ 22 symbols; Roman (Latin) alphabet โ€“ 21 symbols
Indicators โ€“ Metallurgy
๎€Early Metalworking (copper / Bronze / Iron Ages) ca. 4000-600 BC in Europe
oBalkans ca. 4000 BC โ€“ copper (hammered)
๎€Axes, ornaments and other items traded over a wide area
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Document Summary

Importantly, not all these indicators are present in all ancient civilization: e. g. , no writing in ancient south america (peru) quipo: e. g. , little evidence for ostentatious display of power in harappan (indus valley) civilization. most early writing took the form of conventionalized and abstract pictorial" forms. The letter a" for example is thought to descended from a semitic stylized drawing of the head of an ox. similarly the chinese character ri ( sun") at one time more closely resembled the sun. Later developments involve syllabic / alphabetic systems: syllabic written symbol for each syllable. e. g. , cuneiform (mesopotamia) and hieroglyphics (egypt: alphabetic written symbol for each vowel and consonant. e. g. , greek alphabet 22 symbols; roman (latin) alphabet 21 symbols. early metalworking (copper / bronze / iron ages) ca. axes, ornaments and other items traded over a wide area www. notesolution. com: i taly and iberia ca. 300 bc copper smelting: czech republic ca.

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