Chapter 1-3

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Published on 4 Apr 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
LinguisticLecture#1Jan20th,2011
Language,Culture,Prejudice
x Naturevs.nurture(?)–canbechallenge
x Cultureapartthatwascreatedbyhumanbeing
x Adaptation
x Prejudice:racism,ethnocentrism
x Theoriginsofanthropologyandimperialism
x Anthropologyvs.ethnocentrism
x Culturalrelativism
o It’sokayforppltodoanythingastheyareintheirculture
o Shouldn’tjudgeotherculture
1. LanguageandCulture:Nurturevs.Nature
o Afalsecontrast?
o Allhumanshavelanguageandallhumanshaveculture
o Havingalanguageandcultureisartofhumanculture
o CultureisnotnatureNOTTRUE!
o Solanguageandcultureareprogrammedintohumansbynature
2. UniversalsandParticulars
o Languageandculturearehumanuniversals
o Specificlanguage[English,Vietnamese]andspecificcultures[Russian,Ukrainians]arehuman
particulars
o Universals[language,culture]areinnate(bornin)
9 Transmittedbygenesthroughsex
o Particulars[language,cultures]arelearned
9 Transmittedviasocietylargelythroughtalk
3. Adaptivevalueofsocialtransmission
o Socialtransmissionmuchmoreflexiblethangenetictransmission
o Majorchangescanoccurwithinagenerationortwo
o Majorchangescanoccurwithoutachangeofspecies
4. Differenceswithinspecies
o Specificlanguagesandculturesdeveloptocopewithspecificenvironmentalniches
o Words:snow,irPhone,love
o Cultures:potlatch,brideswealth/dowry
o Culture[withlanguage]changethenicheitself
o Result:adaptationwithoutbecominganewspecies
5. Cyborgandreplicants
o Stillhomosapiens
6. Difference,conflict,prejudice
o Withinallspecies,groupscancomeintoconflict,oftenoverresources
o Inhomosapiens,thesegroupsmaybeculturallyadaptedtodifferentniches
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o And/orhavedifferentculturesandlanguages
o Andthismaybeaccompaniedbyprejudicesabouttheother
7. Originsofanthropology
o Modernanthropologydevelopedinthe19thcentury,inaspecificniche
o …the“West”(North?)notgeographicterm
o …inthenineteenthcentury
8. TheWestandtheRest
o MorethaneverwasknownintheWestaboutthenonrWest
o TheWestwasbecomingdominantallovertheworld
o TheAgeofImperialism(late19thtomid20th)century
9. WhenCanadafounded?:1867
10. AnthropologyandthenonrWest
o AnthropologywaslargelythedisciplineforexplainingthenonrWest
o ThegeneralpublicandearlyanthropologistsunderstoodthenonrWestintermsof3kindsofdifference
9 Linguistic[languages]
9 Culture
9 Physical/racial
o Thisishowmostwesternnationsunderstoodthemselves
11. LanguageandPrejudice
o Alllanguageshavethesamegeneralform(e.g.words,sentences,nouns,verbs)
o Butwererankedasanevolutionaryscale,fromprimitivetoadvanced–FALSEOPINION
o AndtheIndorEuropeanwereconsideredtobethemost“advanced”
o “PROOF”Theyhadexpandedallovertheworld,sotheywerethemostadaptive(Schlegel–German
Scholar)=TESTMATERIAL
o What’swrongwiththat?
12. CultureandPrejudice
o A(false)evolutionaryschemeofstages
o Earliest:“Primatecultureshavenotchangedsincethebeginningoftime(savages”,“uncivilized”
o Then,nomadsorbarbarians
o Then,agriculturalcivilizations
o Last,modernwesterncivilizationsthehighestformofculture
o “proof”:theempiresoftheWesttookovertheworld
13. Physicaltypeandprejudice
o Race:afolknotionnotascientificnation
o Scientistmayreferas“race”toanidentifiable,relativelydistinctgeneticpoolinplantsoranimals
o Humanracesarenotsuchapool
o Humandolookdifferentandhumanlookscancorrelateenoughtojustifythenotionofhumanraces
o Thereismorevariation(otherthanskincolour,etc)acrossthanwithinraces
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14. Racialprejudice
o Evolutionary
o 19thcenturyclassifications
9 Blackredyellowwhite
9 Whitethemostcivilized
o Mostpeopledon’tfallintothesecategories
9 Arabswhite,butthenchangetobrownand“middleeastern”
15. LessonoftheOnerDropRule
o Black+white=Black
o Humansdifferbyappearancesbuttheirclassificationsbydifferencesisnotgivenbysociety:nurturenot
nature
o Racialclassificationsarenotmadeinthecontextofrelationsofpowerwithinsociety
o TheblackraceandwhiteracewereinventedalongwithslaveryintheAMERICAS
o Whitenessmeantfreedom,soneededtobeprotected
16. Ethnocentrism
o Mixtureofracialandculturalprejudice=ethnocentrism
o Strugglewithour/yourownethnocentrism
17. Anthropology,imperialism,ethnocentrism
o Professionalanthropologyoriginatedinordertoexplainmorecarefullythedifferencebetweenthe
Westand“primitivepeople
o Sometimesservedthecolonialpower
o Independentanthro
9 BronislawMalinowski
x TrobiandIsland
x Theory:eachculturerespondstoitsownnicheequallywell
9 FranzBoas
x WithKwakiuttfamily1894
x Theory:eachcultureisacomplexoflanguage,cultureandphysicaltype,andnoneis
inferiortoanyother.Ahighercultureisonethatwerecognizesthatweallother
culture.
9 MargaretMead
x Orderly,complexcustoms
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Document Summary

Jan27th,2011. : franzboaz(1858 1942), prejudice,westerncivilizationissuperior, acceptedthelabeledgavebyanthropology(kwakiutt), whenthereareprejudiceinsociety,wearenotfreeofthem, wearenotracist=wefightracism, vancouverisland(1894), culturalrelativism, eachculturehasitsownvalue,shouldnotjudgeotherculture, therearenouniversalstandardsofprogress(ormorality), universalisreallywestern, reason,practical, denyhumanrightsinthewest, areyouareculturalrelativist?, signifyingreality:communicationandconstruction, howwecommunicate/constructrealitybyusinglanguageandothersign, signification=makingsense,makingsigns/wemakesensesthroughsigns, nonlinguisticsigns/linguisticsigns, thenaturesigns:. =signs: signifierandsignified symbol,icon,index, thefunctionofsigns;, communicationandconstruction, howweconstructourself, filmshown:noamchomsky, whylinguisticandsemioticinanthropology?, anthro:studyofwhatitmeanstobehuman. , whylanguage?, whysemiotics?studyofsigns, homosapiens humanthatknows, knowing=makingsense(reflecting,representing), language=awaytomakesense, tomakesense=tosignify[signhify], studyoflanguage=linguistic, studyofsigns(signifying)=semiotics, linguisticispartofsemiotics, semioticsisthestudyof:, language(linguistic), othersigns(semioticproper) www. notesolution. com, communication, classic(structuralist)communicationmodel, channel:voice,spokenlanguage,writingradio,internet,medium, encoding(sender),decoding(receiver), assumesthatthereisanuncodedmessageindependentoflanguage, thisisprobablynottrue, aclassicsaussureanviewofsignification, ferdinanddesaussurean[1857,1913], signifier+signified.  notarbitrary: symbol,icon,index, symbol:arbitraryrelationtosignifiedreferent, connectedonlyviathesystemofsignification(eg. language), arbitrarymeansthereisnoreasonwhyiscalled sheep , arbitraryisoppositeofmotivated, motivated:egpicture, iconandindex. Irony,lies,fantasy,plans: realityasaconstruction, construction:formedbypeopleinsociety;nurture,notnurture, reality=verifiable;theworldasitmakessensetous, realitydoesn"tcomeacrosstouswithoutthefilterofsignsandlanguages, itissociallyconstructed, languageconstructsreality, createsanunderstandingofdistinctconceptsandcategoriesasiftheywerepartoftheobjectivework, suchunderstandinghaveabearingontherealworld, example:colour, green and blue , nodistinctioninoldchinese,oldjapanese,vietnamese,siouxandothers, qingtiai=bluesky, qingcai=greenvegetable, perceptionandinterpretation, thepointisnotthatchinesecouldnotseegreenandblue, buttheydonotseethemasdifferent. Feb3rd,2011: jacqueslacon(1901 1981), frenchpsychoanalyst,interpretedfreud, theselfislinguisticallyconstructed(constructedbylanguage), howtheselfdevelopsaccordingtolecon?, babydoesnotcomeintosocietywithasenseofanindividualself, shelivesinthereal(experiencestheworldasunbounded), withlanguagesshelearnstheboundariesofthings, thisisthesymbolicstage(wouldexperienceasconsistingofboundedunits), i , eachoccurrenceof i isasignifier,whosemeaningisdevelopedfromrelationstoothersignifiers, fromothertimesisaid i , fromtimesiheardotherssay you , ormyname. Intheinnerconversation,onepartycoachestheother: weareboth i and you toourselves, this coach ismoreinfluencedbythesociety, itrepresentssociety, freud:superego(superhself), ourselfisaconversation,anditincludesarepresentationofsociety*thesuperego*, theformsoflanguage=outline, levelsoflinguistic[language]form, discourseanalysis:textandcontext, syntax:sentencestructure, morphology:wordsandtheirstructure, phonology:thesoundsystem, phonemes, allophones, learningresources, booksinpsection(12thflooratrobarts), doublearticulation, languageconsistsofmeaningfulunits,suchastextandwordsand, meaninglessunitsofsound, wearenotdiscussingwritingorletters, thelevelsoflanguage, meaningfulunits, texts(studiedindiscourseanalysis), sentence(studiedinsyntax), words(studiedinmorphology), meaninglessunits(combinetomakemeaning), phonemes(studiedinphonology), phones(studiedinphonetics) www. notesolution. com, text, anymeaningfulitemoritemsperceivedasaunit, ameaningfulitemoritemsunderstoodasnotformingpartofalargeritem, tobeornottobe atext, hamlet atext, linguisticandnonhlinguistictext. Allthewordswiththeendingsagreeinnumber: numberagreementinenglish, thekittensdrivepanizcrazy[plural], thekittendrivespanizcrazy[singular], japanese:nonumberagreement, nnnnnnnn, morphology, thestructureofwords, [asmostlinguisticanalysis]morphologyisconcernedwithspoken,notwrittenlanguage. , morpheme:smallestunitoflanguagethatcarriesmeaning, morpheme.