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Christopher Watts

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Modern Synthesis of Evolution
Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes and populations
Microevolution, Macroevolution, DNA->RNA->Protein
Somatic Cells – most cells in body except sex cells
Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum
Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules and tiny structures called organelles
Nucleus: contains hereditary material (chromosomes), command centre
Chromosomes: paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit
traits from generation to generations
Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic info that codes for synthesis of
Four bases: adenine (A), guanine(G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)
G always binds with C, T always binds with A
Doesn’t really β€œdo” anything…
Ribonucleic acid, Regulate expression of other genes
Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body
Work with structures in ribosomes (factory of cells) critical for manufacturing of proteins
Transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins
Does the work; working molecule
Linear sequences of amino acids that are building blocks of cells
Each protein has specific function determined by blueprint stored in DNA
Eg catalysis of all biochemincal reactions is done by enzymes, which contain protein
(digestion) and many more

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Representation of 3D structure of hemoglobin (transports oxygen)
Eg alcohol: enzyme breaks down alcohol in drinks for humans but not dogs (could die b/c
alcohol destroys cells);
DNA and Protein Production
Transcription: synthesis of single strand of mRNA (messenger RNA) at unwound section of
DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template
Result: genetic info encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA
mRNA carries info into cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via translation
(unzip DNA, make copy of basic layer, DNA zips back up, RNA into cytoplasm)
Genetic info encoded in sequence of three nucleotides termed codons
Four nucleotides of RNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), uracil (U) which replaces T
in DNA template
Pg 27 note typo -> AATTGC -> corresponding mRNA UUAACG
tRNA (translation RNA) info adaptor molecule
direct interface between amino-acid sequence of protein and info in mRNA; decodes info in
acceptor stem where specific amino acid is attached; anticodon reads info in mRNA
sequence by base pairing
Genetics and Heredity
gene: chemical unit of heredity
phenotype: observable physical appearance of organism; may or may not reflect genotype or
total genetic constitution
genotype: total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism
alleles: one member of a pair of genes
homozygous: possessing 2 identical genes of alleles in corresponding locations on pair of
chromosomes (ex YY or yy)
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