6 Apr 2011
Modern Synthesis of Evolution
Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes and populations
Microevolution, Macroevolution, DNA->RNA->Protein
Somatic Cells most cells in body except sex cells
Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum
Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules and tiny structures called organelles
Nucleus: contains hereditary material (chromosomes), command centre
Chromosomes: paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit
traits from generation to generations
Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic info that codes for synthesis of
Four bases: adenine (A), guanine(G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)
G always binds with C, T always binds with A
Doesnt really do anything
Ribonucleic acid, Regulate expression of other genes
Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body
Work with structures in ribosomes (factory of cells) critical for manufacturing of proteins
Transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins
Does the work; working molecule
Linear sequences of amino acids that are building blocks of cells
Each protein has specific function determined by blueprint stored in DNA
Eg catalysis of all biochemincal reactions is done by enzymes, which contain protein
(digestion) and many more
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Representation of 3D structure of hemoglobin (transports oxygen)
Eg alcohol: enzyme breaks down alcohol in drinks for humans but not dogs (could die b/c
alcohol destroys cells);
DNA and Protein Production
Transcription: synthesis of single strand of mRNA (messenger RNA) at unwound section of
DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template
Result: genetic info encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA
mRNA carries info into cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via translation
(unzip DNA, make copy of basic layer, DNA zips back up, RNA into cytoplasm)
Genetic info encoded in sequence of three nucleotides termed codons
Four nucleotides of RNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), uracil (U) which replaces T
in DNA template
Pg 27 note typo -> AATTGC -> corresponding mRNA UUAACG
tRNA (translation RNA) info adaptor molecule
direct interface between amino-acid sequence of protein and info in mRNA; decodes info in
acceptor stem where specific amino acid is attached; anticodon reads info in mRNA
sequence by base pairing
Genetics and Heredity
gene: chemical unit of heredity
phenotype: observable physical appearance of organism; may or may not reflect genotype or
total genetic constitution
genotype: total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism
alleles: one member of a pair of genes
homozygous: possessing 2 identical genes of alleles in corresponding locations on pair of
chromosomes (ex YY or yy)
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