Class Notes (923,841)
CA (543,275)
UTSG (45,894)
ANT (1,765)
ANT100Y1 (1,007)
Lecture

1st lecture Biological

13 Pages
128 Views

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 13 pages of the document.
19:12
September 23rd 2010
Study Suggestions
READ associated chapters before class
LISTEN and make only short notes
REVIEW outline next day
REWRITE! your lecture notes in full immediately after lecture
*lecture notes will be on the course website
Section Goals
a) historical development of biological science
b) Diversity of the life & natural processes produced this diversity
c) Fundamental biological & evolutionary concepts
d) How anthropologists, including those in my department, apply evolutionary
biology in their research
What is evolutionary biology?
Application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the morphology, ecology,
and behavior of human and non-human primates.
% disciplines
1) Primatology
Scientific study of non-human primates
Primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology
Conservation of primates
2) Paleoanthropoly
multidisciplinary study of biological evolution of humans and non-human
primates, the advent of and changes in human cultural activities and
evolutionary history of behavior
3) Human Variation
Spatial and temporal variations in human features
Ex. Geographic and climate variations in body, skin
4) Medical Anthropology
How social, environmental and biological factors influence health and influence
of individuals at the community, regional, national and global level
Forensic Anthropology
Focuses on skeletal remains of humans and seek to determine age, sex, stature,
ancestry and reason for death
Major Questions about humans and our biology
How does evolution work and how does it apply to us?
What are biological characteristics of our species?
What is physical record of our evolution (Paleoanthropology)
www.notesolution.com
How to conduct research:
State Problem, gather info, hypothesis, test hypothesis, record and analysis
data, conclusion, repeat work (Ex. London Fog, one off?)
Early Naturalist
Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linne, 1707-1778)
First comprehensive classification system for living things
Each living thing named separate species
On basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called
genera (singular genus)
Binomial Nomenclature: First letter of genus is capitalized, like so: Homo
Species designations always lower case: sapiens
Of set text in italics or underlined
Believed everything was created by God, cataloguing Gods work
Became overwhelmed by the diversity of life, placed humans in with a
chimpanzees—started to doubt Gods creation
George-Louis Leclerc, Comte Buffon (1707-1788)
Earths history . 6000 years (ca. 75000 years). Major issue with contemporary
religious authorities they had chosen based on reading bible
Founded biogeography: despite similar environments, different regions have
distinct plants and animals . Different communities of organisms, Kings
gardener
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
Inheritance of acquired characteristics. vital forces within the creatures help
them to adapt to environment
Acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed o to future generations
Among the first to formulate method for origination of new species through use
or disuse of certain characters of organism
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle, scientific expedition to Pacific coast of South
America (almost didnt get the job because Captain didnt like the shape of his
nose!!)
Observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures
Conclusion: NO fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological
history of earth must be incorrect and agreed with Leclerc
His Professors put his name in for a naturalist position on the Beagle to sail
around the world for 5 yearsdrop him off on land with researchers. South
America, South east Asia, Africa etc. drawing pictures
Arrived home famous because he had been sending things home to Profs,
married his cousins Wedgewood family (rich!)
Variation Important in Evolution
Physical varaity: in any population of organisms
If variety provides advantages to certain individuals, then they may produce
more offspring
www.notesolution.com
These offspring inherit beneficial variation, so they produce more offspring;
variation norm of population
Population may change, perhaps completely new and different species
How does Adaptive Change Occur?
Key come from Essay on Principle of Populations (1799) by economist Thomas
Malthus (1766-1834). Many more organisms are born than can possibly survive.
Darwin: individuals in a species adapt to environments & long term adaptions
means evolutionary shirt in entire population in response
Darwins Theory on Natural Selection
All extant and extinct species share a common ancestor
Species evolve by natural selection
Natural Selection: a process in nature resulting in survival and perpetuation of
only those forms of life having certain favorable characteristics that enable them
to adapt to best to their environmentit drives evolution
Ex. Selective breeding in dogs
Darwin sat on his theory for 20 years because of fear of the religious authorities
movie on Darwin and wife
Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)
Wallace wrote Darwin from Malaysia, describing certain aspects of theory of
natural selection that Harwin had been researching for 20 years
Wallaces short sketch is far from massive body of evidence Darwin had collected
but its core ideas were similar
Both wrote a paper, after success, he wrote a book On the Origins of Species by
means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the
Struggle for Life (1859)
Three Postulates of Darwinian Evolution
a) Struggle for existence: ability of population to expand infinite, but environment
is always finite
b) variation in fitness: Organisms vary, some individuals possess traits enabling
them to survive & reproduce more successfully than other in same environment
c) Inheritance of Variation: Advantageous traits inherited by offspring will
become more common in succeeding generations. Traits that confer and
advantages in survival and reproduction retained in population; disadvantageous
traits disappear.
Note evolution does not appear in the first edition of the Origin of Species
No purpose to evolution: it never ends as no species is perfect
Debates arose between religious people and pro-Darwin, friends debated for him.
Eventually it was concluded that evolution does not belong with religious faith.
The coexist as separate entities.
Darwins other Contributions
Darwin avoided implications of general progress or directionality
Later works apply evolution to humans & discuss other aspects of trait variation
Sexual selection: certain evolutionary traits that females prefer actually select
masculine traits. Visually determining genetic diversity in potential male mates.
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
19:12 September 23 2010 Study Suggestions READ associated chapters before class LISTEN and make only short notes REVIEW outline next day REWRITE! your lecture notes in full immediately after lecture *lecture notes will be on the course website Section Goals a) historical development of biological science b) Diversity of the life & natural processes produced this diversity c) Fundamental biological & evolutionary concepts d) How anthropologists, including those in my department, apply evolutionary biology in their research What is evolutionary biology? Application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the morphology, ecology, and behavior of human and non-human primates. % disciplines 1) Primatology Scientific study of non-human primates Primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology Conservation of primates 2) Paleoanthropoly multidisciplinary study of biological evolution of humans and non-human primates, the advent of and changes in human cultural activities and evolutionary history of behavior 3) Human Variation Spatial and temporal variations in human features Ex. Geographic and climate variations in body, skin 4) Medical Anthropology How social, environmental and biological factors influence health and influence of individuals at the community, regional, national and global level Forensic Anthropology Focuses on skeletal remains of humans and seek to determine age, sex, stature, ancestry and reason for death Major Questions about humans and our biology How does evolution work and how does it apply to us? What are biological characteristics of our species? What is physical record of our evolution (Paleoanthropology) www.notesolution.comHow to conduct research: State Problem, gather info, hypothesis, test hypothesis, record and analysis data, conclusion, repeat work (Ex. London Fog, one off?) Early Naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linne, 1707-1778) First comprehensive classification system for living things Each living thing named separate species On basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called genera (singular genus) Binomial Nomenclature: First letter of genus is capitalized, like so: Homo Species designations always lower case: sapiens Of set text in italics or underlined Believed everything was created by God, cataloguing Gods work Became overwhelmed by the diversity of life, placed humans in with a chimpanzeesstarted to doubt Gods creation George-Louis Leclerc, Comte Buffon (1707-1788) Earths history . 6000 years (ca. 75000 years). Major issue with contemporary religious authorities they had chosen based on reading bible Founded biogeography: despite similar environments, different regions have distinct plants and animals . Different communities of organisms, Kings gardener Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) Inheritance of acquired characteristics. vital forces within the creatures help them to adapt to environment Acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed o to future generations Among the first to formulate method for origination of new species through use or disuse of certain characters of organism Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle, scientific expedition to Pacific coast of South America (almost didnt get the job because Captain didnt like the shape of his nose!!) Observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures Conclusion: NO fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological history of earth must be incorrect and agreed with Leclerc His Professors put his name in for a naturalist position on the Beagle to sail around the world for 5 yearsdrop him off on land with researchers. South America, South east Asia, Africa etc. drawing pictures Arrived home famous because he had been sending things home to Profs, married his cousins Wedgewood family (rich!) Variation Important in Evolution Physical varaity: in any population of organisms If variety provides advantages to certain individuals, then they may produce more offspring www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit