Class Notes (905,569)
CA (538,428)
UTSG (45,721)
ANT (1,751)
ANT100Y1 (999)
Lecture

Lecture Note

23 Pages
116 Views

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 23 pages of the document.
Lecture 1:
Biological Anthropology 21:58
Dr. Shawn Lehman
AP404A (19 Russell St) Office hours Tuesdays 2-3
Tips
Read associated chapters before class
Rewrite your lecture notes in full after lecture
Review outline the next day
Copies of the outline will be on the course site
Section Goals
1) Understand development of biological science
2) Understand diversity of life and natural processes produced this diversity
3) Understand fundamental biological and evolutionary concepts
4) Understand how anthropologists, including this in this dept., apply evolutionary
biology in their research
Evolutionary Anthropology-application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of
the morphology, ecology and behavior of human and non human primates
5 Research Disciplines
Primatology
Study of non human primates
Psych, anatomy, studies of wild animals
Also seek to conserve primates in vanishing tropical ecosystems
Paleoanthropology
Study of biological evolution of humans and non humans, advent of ad changes in
human cultural activities, evolutionary history of behavior in human and non
human primates
Human Variation
Spatial and temporal variations in human features
For example geographic and climatic variations in body size, skin color and eye color
Medical Anthropology
How social, environmental and biological factors influence health and illness of
individuals at the community, regional, national, and global levels
Forensic Anthropology
Focuses only on skeletal remains of humans
Forensic anthropologists seek to determine the age, sex, stature, ancestry, and any
trauma or disease of the deceased
Major Questions about Humans and our Biology
How does evolution work and how does it apply to us?
What are biological characteristics of our species?
What is physical record of evolution (Paleoanthropology)
How evolutionary anthropologists conduct their research (Stanley Gathered Few
Trophies Racing Slow Rabbits):
State the problem
www.notesolution.com
Gather information
Form a hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
Record and analyze data
State the conclusion
Repeat the work
Work of Early Naturalists that led to Development of Evolutionary Theory
Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linne, 1707-1778)
1st comprehensive classification system for living things
each living thing named separate species
on basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called
genera (singular genus)
Binomial Nomenclature
First letter of genus is capitalized, like so: Homo
Species designations always lower case, like so: sapiens
Off-set text: underline if hand-writing (Homo sapiens) or italicize when typing
(Homo sapiens)
Was NOT an Evolutionist
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)
Earths history > 6,000 years (ca. 75,000 years). Major issue with contemporary
religious authorities
Founded biogeography: despite similar environments, different regions have distinct
plants and animals
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics. vital forces within creatures help them
adapt to environment
Acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed on to future generations
Among first to formulate method for origination of new species through use or
disuse of certain characters of organism
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle, scientific expedition to Pacific coast of South America
Observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures
Conclusion: NO fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological
history for earth must be incorrect
Variation Important in Evolution
Physical variety in any populations of organisms
If variety provides advantage to certain individuals, then they may produce more
offspring
These offspring inherit beneficial variation, so they produce more offspring;
variation norm of population
Population may change, perhaps completely new and different species
www.notesolution.com
How does Adaptive Change Occur?
Key came from Essay on the Principle of Populations by economist Thomas Malthus.
Many more organisms are born than can possibly survive
Darwin: individuals in a species adapt to environments and long term adaptation
means evolutionary shift in entire population in response to environmental change
Darwins Theory on Natural Selection
All extant and extinct species share a common ancestry
Species evolve by natural selection
Natural selection: a process in nature resulting in survival and perpetuation of
only those forms of life having certain favorable characteristics that enable them to
adapt best to their environment
Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)
Wallace writes Darwin from Malaysia, describing certain aspects theory of natural
selection that Darwin had been researching for 20 years
Wallaces short sketch is far from massive body of evidence Darwin had collected,
but its core ideas were similar
Three Postulates of Darwinian Evolution (from Origins of Species )
1) Struggle for existence: ability of population to expand is infinite, but environment
is always finite
2) Variation in fitness: organisms vary, some individuals possess traits enabling
them to survive and reproduce more successfully than others in same environment
3) Inheritance of variation: advantageous traits inherited by offspring will become
more common in succeeding generations. Traits that confer advantages in survival
and reproduction retained in population; disadvantageous traits disappear
Note: The word evolution does not appear in the first edition of Origins of Species
Darwins Other Contributions
Darwin avoided implications of general progress or directionality
Later works apply evolution to humans, and discuss other aspects of trait variation
Sexual selection: certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspecific
(within-species) competition
Why Doesnt Evolution Result in General Increase of Fitness of Life to External
World?
Reason: environments always changing
Relative to organisms, environments usually getting worse
Natural selection concerned with keeping up, but every species eventually becomes
extinct
Survival of the Fittest
Herbert Spencer NOT Charles Darwin, although at Wallaces urging, Darwin did
use it in later editions of his book
Spencer proclaimed wrongly that a struggle for existence in human society leads, in
effect, to its evolution
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Lecture 1: Biological Anthropology 21:58 Dr. Shawn Lehman AP404A (19 Russell St) Office hours Tuesdays 2-3 Tips Read associated chapters before class Rewrite your lecture notes in full after lecture Review outline the next day Copies of the outline will be on the course site Section Goals 1) Understand development of biological science 2) Understand diversity of life and natural processes produced this diversity 3) Understand fundamental biological and evolutionary concepts 4) Understand how anthropologists, including this in this dept., apply evolutionary biology in their research Evolutionary Anthropology-application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the morphology, ecology and behavior of human and non human primates 5 Research Disciplines Primatology Study of non human primates Psych, anatomy, studies of wild animals Also seek to conserve primates in vanishing tropical ecosystems Paleoanthropology Study of biological evolution of humans and non humans, advent of ad changes in human cultural activities, evolutionary history of behavior in human and non human primates Human Variation Spatial and temporal variations in human features For example geographic and climatic variations in body size, skin color and eye color Medical Anthropology How social, environmental and biological factors influence health and illness of individuals at the community, regional, national, and global levels Forensic Anthropology Focuses only on skeletal remains of humans Forensic anthropologists seek to determine the age, sex, stature, ancestry, and any trauma or disease of the deceased Major Questions about Humans and our Biology How does evolution work and how does it apply to us? What are biological characteristics of our species? What is physical record of evolution (Paleoanthropology) How evolutionary anthropologists conduct their research (Stanley Gathered Few Trophies Racing Slow Rabbits): State the problem www.notesolution.comGather information Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Record and analyze data State the conclusion Repeat the work Work of Early Naturalists that led to Development of Evolutionary Theory Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linne, 1707-1778) 1 comprehensive classification system for living things each living thing named separate species on basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called genera (singular genus) Binomial Nomenclature First letter of genus is capitalized, like so: Homo Species designations always lower case, like so: sapiens Off-set text: underline if hand-writing (Homo sapiens) or italicize when typing (Homo sapiens) Was NOT an Evolutionist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) Earths history > 6,000 years (ca. 75,000 years). Major issue with contemporary religious authorities Founded biogeography: despite similar environments, different regions have distinct plants and animals Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics. vital forces within creatures help them adapt to environment Acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed on to future generations Among first to formulate method for origination of new species through use or disuse of certain characters of organism Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle, scientific expedition to Pacific coast of South America Observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures Conclusion: NO fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological history for earth must be incorrect Variation Important in Evolution Physical variety in any populations of organisms If variety provides advantage to certain individuals, then they may produce more offspring These offspring inherit beneficial variation, so they produce more offspring; variation norm of population Population may change, perhaps completely new and different species www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit