ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Torus Mandibularis, Messenger Rna, Somatic Cell

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2 Jun 2016
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anthro lec 2 principles of evolution 10/2/2015 12:10:00 AM
Modern synthesis of evolution
focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and
populations
microevolution
macroevolution
DNA RNA PROTEIN
Genetics
Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells)
Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg])
Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures
called organelles
Nucleus: contains hereditary material, known as chromosomes
Chromosomes
Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that
transmit traits from generation to generation
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that
codes for the synthesis of proteins
Four bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), & Thymine (T)
RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules:
1. Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in
body
2. regulate expression of other genes
3. work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for
manufacture of proteins
4. Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creation of proteins
Proteins
Linear sequences of amino acids; building blocks of cells
each protein has specific function determined by “blueprint” stored in
DNA
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e.g. catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which
contain protein (digestion); and many more
Transcription
synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mRNA: messenger
RNA) at unwound section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as
template
Result: genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA
mRNA carries information into cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs
via translation
allows information to move from one cell to the other
Codons
Genetic information encoded in sequence of three nucleotides termed
codons
a sequence of 3 bases that sequence to a specific kind of amino acid
Four nucleotides of RNA are: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and
uracil (U), which replaces thymine (T) in DNA template
Translation
tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule
direct interface between amino acid sequence of protein & information in
mRNA
therefore, it decodes information in mRNA
acceptor stem is site where specific amino acid is attached
anticodon reads information in a mRNA sequence by base pairing
Genetics & Heredity
Gene: chemical unit of heredity
Phenotype: observable physical appearance of organism; may or may not
reflect genotype or total genetic constitution
Genotype: the total complement of inherited traits or genes of an
organism
Alleles: one member of a pair of genes
Homozygous: possessing two identical genes or alleles in corresponding
locations on a pair of chromosomes
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ex. YY or yy
Heterozygous: possessing differing genes or alleles in corresponding
locations on a pair of chromosomes
ex. Yy
Dominant alleles: allele of gene pair that is always phenotypically
expressed in heterozygous form
ex. Y always expressed phenotypically when paired with y (Yy)
Recessive alleles: allele phenotypically suppressed in heterozygous form
& expressed only in homozygous form
ex. y only expressed phenotypically when paired with y (yy)
o e.g. mandibular tori
Mutation
error or change in a nucleotide sequence
randomly occurring process
somatic cell mutations in terms of relevance to evolutionary anthropology
can be neutral, harmful, or (very, very rarely) beneficial for organism
ex. ccr5-delta32 mutation confers HIV-1 resistance in homozygous
condition
result of four things:
copying errors in cell division
exposure to radiation
exposure to mutagens
exposure to viruses
ultimate source of new genetic materials in populations
Population Genetics: Genetic Drift
Random changes in gene pool over time
Three important outcomes:
reduces within-population genetic variation
more likely to effect small populations
increases between population genetic variation
Population Genetics: Gene Flow
Movement of genes between populations
two important outcomes:
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ANT100Y1 Full Course Notes
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Document Summary

Modern synthesis of evolution focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and populations: microevolution, macroevolution. Genetics: somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells, gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg], cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called organelles, nucleus: contains hereditary material, known as chromosomes. Chromosomes: paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from generation to generation. Dna: deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for the synthesis of proteins, four bases: adenine (a), guanine (g), cytosine (c), & thymine (t) Proteins: linear sequences of amino acids; building blocks of cells, each protein has specific function determined by blueprint stored in. Dna: e. g. catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain protein (digestion); and many more. Transcription: synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mrna: messenger.

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