Class Notes (906,046)
CA (538,595)
UTSG (45,723)
ANT (1,751)
ANT100Y1 (999)
Lecture

Principles of Evolution

5 Pages
74 Views

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Anthropology September 30th, 2010.
Principles of Evolution
Goals:
1.Understand microevolution
Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution
Population genetics
Natural selection
Adaptation
2.Understand macroevolution
Speciation
How to read a cladogram
How evolution works on a grand scale
The modern synthesis
The Modern Synthesis of Evolution:
Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and population
Microevolution
Macroevolution
DNARNAProtein
Cell:
1.Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells)
2.Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg])
3.Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called
organelles
4.Nucleus: contains hereditary material known as chromosomes
Chromosome:
Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits form
generation to generation
DNA:
Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes
for the synthesis of proteins
Four bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine, (C), Thymine (T)
A always goes with T, G always goes with C
RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Molecules:
1)Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body
2)Regulate expression of other genes
www.notesolution.com
Anthropology September 30th, 2010.
3)Work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of
proteins
4)Transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins
Proteins:
Linear sequence of amino acids; building blocks of cells
Each protein has specific function determined by ‘blueprint’ stored in DNA
E.g. catalyst of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain
protein (digestion); and many more
Hemoglobin – transports oxygen
Need 20 amino acids to live – get through living/breathing
(1:30)
Transcription:
Synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mRNA: messenger RNA) at unwound
section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template
Result: genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA
mRNA carries information
Codons:
Genetic information encoded in sequences of three nucleotides termed codons
Four nucleotides of RNA are: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil
(u), which replaces thymine (T) in DNA template
TYPO page 27: “Thus a nucleotide sequence of AATTGC on one side of the DNA
results in a corresponding mRNA sequence of UUAACG
Translation:
tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule
Direct interface between amino-acid sequence of protein & information in mRNA.
Therefore it decodes information in mRNA
Acceptor stem is site where specific amino acid is attached. Anticodon reads
information in a mRNA sequence by base pairing.
Genetic & Heredity
Gene : chemical unit of heredity
Phenotype : observable physical appearance of organism; may or may not reflect
genotype or total genetic constitution
Genotype : the total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism
Alleles : one member of a pair of genes
Homozygous : possessing two identical genes or alleles in corresponding locations
on a pair of chromosomes. For example: YY or yy
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
th Anthropology September 30 , 2010. Principles of Evolution Goals: 1. Understand microevolution Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution Population genetics Natural selection Adaptation 2. Understand macroevolution Speciation How to read a cladogram How evolution works on a grand scale The modern synthesis The Modern Synthesis of Evolution: Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and population Microevolution Macroevolution DNARNAProtein Cell: 1. Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells) 2. Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg]) 3. Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called organelles 4. Nucleus: contains hereditary material known as chromosomes Chromosome: Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits form generation to generation DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for the synthesis of proteins Four bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine, (C), Thymine (T) A always goes with T, G always goes with C RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Molecules: 1) Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body 2) Regulate expression of other genes www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit