Boas (1858-1942) collected evidence that diverse beliefs and practices that distinguish different groups of h. beings from one another were due to differences in social learning (culture counteracting racism) Cultural relativism anthropologists" interpretation of specific beliefs and practices in accordance with their culture. Social and cultural boundaries are not fixed. National culture united citizens, sense of identity (bonding factor) Culture, prison house of custom from which people could never escape . Cultural hybridization mixing and reconfiguring of elements from different cultural traditions. Indigenization cultural features that may have originated in west. Anthropologists assume that all cultural traditions are open to change: focus on societies who adopt element from other cultures. Language system of arbitrary vocal symbols that human beings use to encode expression. Easy to observe and study in detail (in each culture) Protolanguage all languages may have derived from a common ancestor (language family) Ethnolinguistics relation between language and culture.