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Lecture 49

ANT200Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 49: Silt, Rammed Earth, Angkor Borei District

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Christopher Watts

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Monday, March 12, 2018
Lecture 16!
-Localization Era, shift from the indus valley to the ganges.!
-Indus Valley summary!
Consistency in city planning!
Elite areas but the leaders are unknown!
No pyramids, no palaces or massive tombs.!
A large settlement composed of longhouses. !
About 7000 years old.!
Farming community. Interpreted as matrilineal!
Women would have been playing a seminal roll in farming and raising animals.!
-LongShan Period: 3000-2000 BCE!
Rice cultivation in the north!
Sites become larger!
Between 5-4000 years ago, the emergence of metal work and bronze!
Continued use of scapilumency. Take the scapula of an ox and use it to
communicate with ancestors. Goes back earlier than LongShan period but we see
it continuing at this time.!
-Prior to Xia dynasty, we start to see as early as 6000 years ago, we may start to see
evidence of settlement hierarchy.!
-Most archaeologists currently think of the Xia Dynasty as the beginning of state
formation in Northern China.!
-Settlement hierarchy. Erlitou, and some other smaller towns.!
-Erlitou: Walled by stamped earth. Some burials!
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Monday, March 12, 2018
-Some people have argued that the emergence of Erlitou came with the chinese
interaction sphere. This explains the sharing of material culture over such a large
area. At the center is the control of bronze and bronze making technology.!
Continuity in the types of signals that appear on pottery.!
-The thought is that Erlitou is the capital of the Xia dynasty.!
-By the end of the Erlitou dynasty, there appear to be many city states vying for
-Rammed earth walls around the settlements.!
-As Erlitou declines in use, other cities start to come into prominence.!
-Shang Dynasty !
The first territorial state in China.!
-Zhengzhou seems to be an important Shang center. The first capital of the Shang
-After the foundation of the Shang Dynasty, the capital was relocated on many
occasions. There are many interpretations: allows a new king to cut ties with local
elites. Other principles, environmental degradation are also explanations.!
-Anyang is the capital of the late Shang Dynasty. 1200-1045 BCE. By this time, Shang
rulers had expanded the territory to take up most of northern China.!
-The palatial complex contained palaces, temples, administrative buildings right at
the core of the city.!
-These cities are much less compact than the cities in the Indus valley.!
-Oracle bones:!
Scribe carves information onto bones.!
-Bronze vessels in the !
Controlling the bronze themselves was important, as well as the technology
associated with it.!
Important in ritual symbols, writing.!
Would only be used by royalty and nobility.!
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