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Lecture 77

ANT200Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 77: Heterarchy, Pyramid Texts, Fourth Dynasty Of Egypt

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Christopher Watts

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Monday, March 5, 2018
Lecture 15!
-Early Dynastic period Memphis and Saqqara!
Start to get in the early dynastic period some kings experimenting with pyramids.!
Shift of royal cemetery to Giza!
Movement of capital to Memphis!
Cemeteries are on western bank of the nile.!
-The thought is that the cemeteries are on the west side where the sun is setting.!
-Pyramid at Saqqara!
Built by Djoser from the third dynasty!
Surrounded by an enclosure!
The buildings inside the complex seems to replicate the course that the living king
would have run during the Sed festival. This is one of the oldest and most
important festivals/ceremonies in ancient Egypt.!
-Sed festival!
One of the oldest festivals in Egypt!
It is a jubilee!
It is celebrated by the king after 30 years of rule and then every 3 years after that.!
It is a reenactment of the unification of upper and lower Egypt. Reenact the
moment when Egypt through the pharaoh towards chaos.!
This festival is not just a retelling of political history, it is also key to maintaining the
cosmic order.!
The pharaoh is ensuring that the world is able to fend o chaos.!
Snefru was the fourth dynasty king that was the first to try and build a pyramid. It
was a step pyramid. The pyramid collapsed!
-Snefru’s second attempt was at Dasher!
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Monday, March 5, 2018
They started too steep so they changed the angel halfway through.!
The third attempt was the red pyramid which was a success at Saqqara.!
By this time we’re in the old kingdom.!
-Old Kingdom!
Move of the capital!
Memphis contained many important religious facilities as well as the royal palace.!
Double crown = divine manifestation of unity of Egypt.!
-Pyramids at Giza!
A true necropolis (city of dead)!
These are monumental pyramids. They allow kings to distinguish themselves from
lesser nobilities.!
A true architectural form that is only for them. Ensures that the king’s soul is
nourished and can travel freely between heaven and Earth.!
-Earliest pyramid was built by Cheops (4th dynasty)!
This is the great pyramid!
-The other two were bill by ciphered and mycerinus (other 4th dynasty kings)!
-There is no enclosure ground. Shroud the body of pharaoh in mystery!
-Pyramid complexes are composed of 4 parts: valley temple, causeway linking the
temple with the mortuary temple. Mortuary temple is built in front of the pyramid,
then the pyramid itself. There are lots of other tombs around.!
-Cheops pyramid was covered in white gleaming limestone.!
Kings and queen chambers inside the pyramids. There were shafts.!
-Pyramid texts: intended to help the pharaoh travel through the afterworld. These are
the oldest bodies of religious writings in the world. !
-Mummification process!
Typically remove all internal organs before mummification except the heart.!
Then cover the body with salt and leave for 40 days until all moisture eliminated.!
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