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School
Department
Course
COMPLEX SOCIETY IN SOUTH ASIA AND EAST ASIA
extent of british raj – map
it is during this time, the indus valley civilization came into attention
HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
Environmental Context
Indus River Valley – Eastern Pakistan/ Western India
total length is 3200km
July-Sept floods = massive silt deposits (capped sites)
similar to Mesopotamia
village settlements tethered to river by ca. 3000 BC; widespread irrigation by 2500 BC
EARLY STAGE ( ca 3200 – 2700 BC)
walled towns (defense, flood controls?)
Lowland – Highland (Baluchistan) symbiosis
Metals, timber, semiprecious stones
Transhumane (goats and sheep)
Rapid transition to complexity in lowlands after 2600 BC
- Material culture becomes more uniform across indus valley civilization
Tied to sumerian trade?
Indigenous development?
MATURE STAGE (ca 2700 – 1700 BC)
Territorial state (1.3 million km square)
Heavily urbanized: five major cities
- best known are Mohenjodaro and Harappa
centralized planning; laid out on grid system
emphasis on hygiene
public buildings, but few palaces and ostentatious tombs
class distinction not brought out in archaeology
MOHENJADARO
largest (2.5km2); first contstructed ca 2600 BC
Major administrative centre; pop 35,000+
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Document Summary

Complex society in south asia and east asia extent of british raj map it is during this time, the indus valley civilization came into attention. Indus river valley eastern pakistan/ western india total length is 3200km. July-sept floods = massive silt deposits (capped sites) similar to mesopotamia village settlements tethered to river by ca. Early stage ( ca 3200 2700 bc) walled towns (defense, flood controls?) Rapid transition to complexity in lowlands after 2600 bc. Material culture becomes more uniform across indus valley civilization. Best known are mohenjodaro and harappa centralized planning; laid out on grid system emphasis on hygiene public buildings, but few palaces and ostentatious tombs class distinction not brought out in archaeology. Mohenjadaro largest (2. 5km2); first contstructed ca 2600 bc. Two parts: citadel and lower city (largely unexcavated) Elevated, fortified (walled) not seem to be oriented for defense, but for flooding. Notable structures: great bath, great granary, pillared assembly hall (court)

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