ANT200 - Lecture 2 – Monday, September 15th, 2014
• Franklin – British explorer; his ship got stuck in the Arctic.
• He and his team probably died from lead poisoning.
• Ultimately, Archeology is writing; translating archeological records into observations.
• Archeological Ethics: Stewardship; accountability; commercialization; public education
and outreach; intellectual property; public reporting; records and preservation; training
• When you put archeological finds into context that is when they have value.
• In an archeological survey, you could be walking across a piece of land day after day,
week after week, month after month, just looking at the ground and observing what is
• Hunter-Gatherer Mobility:
Base Camp Lithic Quarry
What would we find on survey?
•Tools would be dispersed over the specialized area.
•In the base camp, we would find high utility bones, generalized
tool kit, fire places, etc.
•Here we could find a mixture of high utility tools; depending on the
season, tools that would be used according to the season in which
that site was used; less permanent structures.
• The Pub Effect: If you do not design your survey correctly, you will find biases because
your goal is not to find sites, but to find past adaptations at the landscape level.
• Sampling strategy:
oMust be related to your goals.
Incorporate prior knowledge
• What makes sites visible?
oDeposition – deposits sediments; ex. Burial sites
oErosion – carries sediments away.
oIf you do not understand these two, your survey may reflect geological processes
rather than how people used the land then.
• Aerial photography was developed around World War I.
• Uruk – oldest city in the world; about 4,000 years old; sits on what was once the
• The way GIS (Geographic Information System) works is that if you have just a
topographic map of your site and you have at least three geo-spatial points with latitude
and longitude, you can keep adding layers to the map (ex. Adding rivers).
• GIS is a software application that is invaluable for controlling spatial data on landscapes.