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Course Code
Christopher Watts

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ANT100Y: Introduction to Anthropology
October 8, 2009
New Ideas, New Worlds
Cro-Magnon upper Paleolithic peoples of Europe
Cro-Magnon Art
oDistribution: North Africa to Siberia
Major concentrations in SW France, Northern Spain, central/eastern
Parietal (cave) engraved and painted animals (bison, horse, wild boar,
ibex are common) humans, negative depiction of hands, and geometric
shapes ochre, hematite, charcoal used as pigments
Open air (petrrogylphs) – very rare!
Mobiliary (portable) many different media e.g. clay, wood,
bone/antler only a small portion of which survives today engraved
antler, bone and ivory objects often intricately carved Venus
figurines one class that is widespread and enigmatic ‘fertility cult’ ?
oKey Sites
Most famous site: Lascaux (SW France, Dordogne)
Horses, bulls and ibex most common depictions
Henri Breuil – hunting magic
David Lewis-Williams – work of shamans
Chantal Jeugues-Wolkiewiez – abstract images as star charts
oCoa Valley Archaeological Park (documentary)
UNESCO world heritage site in NE Portugal
Thousands of open-air engravings (petrrogylphs)

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ANT100Y: Introduction to Anthropology
Horses, ibex, human and abstract figures
Discovered in the late 1980s; threatened with destruction by dam project in
the early 1990s
Colonization : Australia
oColonization of Australia by at least 40 kya, definitely with use of watercraft
oWillandra Lakes region (SE Australia – NSW)
Evidence of human settlement between 37 and 26 kya; shell middens and
The First Americans
oSome debate as to when people first arrived in the Americas
oArch. Evidence likely ca. 15 kya; passage south by 14 kya
oBeringia (landmass linking NE Asia with Alaska)
Now the Bering Sea
oTracking migrating herds of caribou?
Dated between 14 and 8 kya
Famous for fluted-point technology known as Clovis
Originally associated with big-game hunting, like megafauna, now
believed they also took bison and caribou, fish, sea-mammals
Opportunistic and very mobile; settled in a diverse array of environment
oEarly Site: Monte Verde (Chile)
Definitely occupied by 14 kya; may have been occupied as early as 31 kya
Good preservation of bone and wooden artifacts; wooden houses covered
with hides
Emphasis on plant foods (e.g. potato)
After the Paleolithic
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