lecture notes 7

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11 Dec 2011
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Primate Adaptations lecture 07
Taxonomic differences in primate crania
Cranial morphology
o Size
o Post-orbital bar/closure
o Surface structures
Dental morphology
o Dental formula
o Tooth size
o Tooth morphology
• Dietary adaptation
• Taxon-specific morphology (e.g., gap for rhinarium, tooth comb,
bilophodonty, Y-5)
Taxonomic differences: Strepsirhines vs Haplorhines
Post-orbital bar/plate
Tooth comb, gap for rhinarium-wet padded nose
* Strepsirhines-eye socket is not fully closed, tooth comb only 6 teeth make up
Haplorhines- there is full closure around the eye
Taxonomy: dental formula
Strepsirhines: 2:1:3:3 (except lepilemurs, indriids, Daubentonia)
Tarsiers: 2:1:3:3
NWM: 2:1:3:3 (except marmosets and tamarins [2:1:3:2])
Catarrhines: 2:1:2:3
Aye-aye (Daubentonia)
* Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur)
Typical strepsirhine→
←Atypical strepsirhine
↑ typical NWM (squirrel monkey) ↑ atypical NWM (tamarin)
(2:1:3:3) (2:1:3:2)
typical catarrhine → (chimp)
Taxon-specific cusp patterns
Bilophodonty (OWM)
Y-5 (hominoid lower molars)
* ← cercopithecoid (baboon) upper and lower post-canine dentition
* hominoid (chimp) lower molars
Primate dietary adaptations
Factors affecting diet:
o Climate- depends on where they live
o Seasonality –whats around that time of the year
o Geography – location
o Competition
o Body size
o Activity pattern
Fallback foods
o foods consumed when preferred food items are unavailable
Functional morphology
Primate dietary adaptations
← Mouse lemur (Microcebus) ↑ insectivorous *teeth that are dagor like to puncture
ex co skeleton
← Gorilla (Gorilla) ↑ folivorous* → designed to eat leaves –teeth act like sisors when
enamel wears away
Primate dietary adaptations
←Orangutan (Pongo) hard object frugivore and a lot of the food has hard covering
crenulations - wrinkled appearance of teeth in oronogotans
Chimp (Pan) soft fruit frugivore/ omnivore
Primate sexual dimorphism
*is most common in animals who eat fruits
*social structurism- sex ratio
*gorillas and orangatans are sexually dimoprphic
*smaller animals are not
*sagital crest, nuchal crest, brow ridge, canine size (on slide)
Primate sexual: dimorphism: dentaion
Are shown to other males by yawning to make them back off
Baboon (Papio) female smaller k9
Baboon (Papio) male bigger –sexual dimorphic
sectorial P3- sectoral premolar used to sharpen the top k 9
Primate sexual monomorphism
On slide
Primate locomotor adaptations
On slide page 13
Primate forelimbs
• size (length) and shape (curvature)
• robusticity
• joint surfaces (proximal and distal ends)
• muscle attachment sites
On slide 14
Primate hands
• size (length) and shape (curvature)
• robusticity
• pollex!
Nov-22-2011 (got to class late and missed the first 10 min, of a lecture) get notes!!!
Primate hands
• size (length) and shape (curvature)
• robusticity
• pollex!
*gorilla hands are made for grasping
Homo hands are smaller and not as wide
Gorilla hands are alot more robust because there body are semi erect
Pan are smaller version of gorillas
Pango have very long fingers that acts like a hook
*thumbs are a very important part human morphology but in apes and other
monkeys its not as important
Primate pelvic girdles
Pan pelvis, superior, interiorly and medal and laterally
Sacrum are used for transmitting weight into the lower part of the body
•size (length) and shape (curvature)
Primate hindlimbs
Human bones runs on an incline making our body more efficient
Chimps have more of a vertical femur bone making different
*human fovea, helps to re enforces the stability of our socket joints
* chimp fovea,
*orang-utan don’t have a fovea
•size (length) and shape (curvature)
•joint surfaces
Primate hindlimbs and feet
Human have longer tibas then apes
*in humans the foot is a pedistale and allows us to stand on, but in apes it acts as a
grasping function
size (length) and shape (curvature)
•joint surfaces
• hallux!
• function
*tibula is fused to the fibula in tarsiers rather than separate
Lecture 08 Guest Lecture On Primates and Research
Test chapter 6 7 and 8
Lab material
Flim x 2
Lectures and guest lecture
Format: multiple choice
Short answer question
Items to bring with you: t card student card and pen, pencil for scantron