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ANT203 November 15.pdf

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Xueda Song

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Ceropithecoids (OW Monkeys) - from last lecture
Asia and Africa
relatively social (larger groups); vary depending on access to resources
on average, larger than platyrrhines
derived dentition (cusp arrangement)
diverse diet (omnivorous)
more generalized of 2 groups
less specialized in terms of diet (broad range - fruit, seeds, grass, insects,
eggs, reptiles, small mammals)
most found in Africa, but Macaques are widely distributed (throughout Asia
and Africa; also Gibraltar, but introduced - those in Gibraltar are the only
tailless monkeys; most northern distribution of any living primate other than
tend to have roughly equal limb length
many terrestrial
ex. Patas monkey (Erythrocebus)
Western and Eastern Africa
found in semi-arid conditions
don't have trees to escape from predators, so have
adapted to run up to 55 km/h on the ground
very large group sizes (50-100 individuals), also useful for
fighting off terrestrial predetors
Guenon (Cercopithecus)
frugivorous (eats fruit)
small body size
dependent on forested conditions (more arboreal)
moderate degree of sexual dimorphism (males slightly larger)
live in large, multi-species groups (species of Guenon)
Baboons (Papio)
often used as models for early human evolution b/c of social
structure; very large groups with complex interactions
very sexually dimorphic
omnivorous (seeds, grass, etc.)
"dog-faced": pronounced snouts
Mandrill (Mandrillus)
very similar to baboons, but bright coloured face
sexually dimorphic and dichromatic

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more specialized, esp. re: diet
aka "leaf monkeys" - very folivorous
mostly found in Asia, with the exception of the Colobus monkey (Colobus)
in Africa (black and white ones pictured - often eaten by chimpanzees)
adaptations tend to mirror dietary preference
hard on digestive tract - cellulose in leaves is hard to break down, so
tend to have adaptations to deal with this
teeth to slice and process leaves as much as possible
gut tracts tend to be longer and more complex - need more
time to digest the leaves
generally longer legs than Cercopithecines
highly arboreal
odd-nosed monkey (Nasalis)
endemic to Borneo in Indonesia
coastal / water-bearing areas
pop. has decreased by 50% in recent years; endangered
sexually dimorphic (males larger)
both genders have big noses, but males can have noses up to
10 cm in length
good leapers, but also good swimmers (swim up to 20 consecutive
Semnopithecus (langur)
esp. in India
due to habitat destruction, have been pushed into urban centers,
leading to strange behaviour
3 kinds of social groupings
1 male + multiple females + offspring
multiple males, multiple females, all ages
small all-male groups
practice infanticide (killing of offspring)
not unique to langurs, but well-documented in their case;
possibly a response to habitat destruction
most typical when an all-male group moves into a group
where there was a single male - kill the male's offspring and
mate with the females
Hominoids (Apes, Humans)
usually larger body size
absence of a tail (again, with exception of Gibraltar macaques, apes are unique in
short, stiff backs (especially lumbar region; less true of humans)
in non-human hominoids, this is an adaptation to suspensory behaviour and

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swinging through trees
long arms (except humans)
short legs (except humans)
complex brain and enhanced cognitive abilities (larger brain at the very least)
longer infant development and dependency (slower life history schedule); slowest
development of all primates
Hylobatids (Gibbons and Siamangs)
South-East Asia
often referred to as lesser apes (vs. great apes)
smallest hominoids
dependent on tropical rainforest, especially for locomotion: very
one primate species considered true brachiators (arm over
arm swinging) - other monkeys can do this, but less well
to facilitate brachiation:
extremely large arms (part of why they aren't
anatomically, hands form a hook - therefore, don't
need much energy to hang in a tree (can do that even
highly frugivorous
not really sexually dimorphic (skeletally it's almost impossible to
tell), but often sexually dichromatic
groups usually male + female + offspring, though male can change
very territorial (common for pair-bonding / small groups)
Hominids (Great Apes, Humans)
Orangutan (Pongo)
found in Asia + SE Asia (especially Borneo and Sumatra)
highly arboreal - adaptations:
very curved fingers, like Gibbons
extremely flexible
quadrumanous (or quadrumanous climbers)
means four hands - difficult to tell apart hands and
all for grasping
very sexually dimorphic (second to Gorillas)
much larger males than females
usually pair-bonded or solitary
highly frugivorous (teeth adapted to eating fruit with hard outer
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