Lecture - Aids and Haiti (I+II)

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2 Jun 2011
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Lecture 3 & 4 Aids and Haiti
1. HAITIAN HISTORY IN BRIEF
1/3 of the Dominican Republic
Speaks creole (kreyol)
Spain was the first settlers and found people called Taino
Spain held for 150 years
Spain gave Haiti to France as a resolve of war where France converted
the island to a sugar and coffee plantation economy and became very
wealthy. Account for 40% of all French trade and about 60% of all of
Europe
Affranchis class established it as a merchant class, but majority of
people were slaves
Slaves then decided to get rid of the French
1804, the French were gone and Haitians established independence
(independence was not negotiated, it was fought for)
oIt was now, for the first time, a black economy, not white
oWas now a country where the slaves kicked out the masters, and
neighbouring was the U.S which was practicing slavery
2. COLONIAL REPERCUSSIONS
The Affranchis have now become the new elite, instead of the Europeans
which have been kicked out
France claimed that since Haiti had been their richest economy, they
were owed something in return (reparations of 150 million French
francs)
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oThey said if they dont pay, they will declare war
oAnother part of the reparation was that they could ONLY take
loans from French banks, that way they get all the interests as
well
oWhy would Haiti agreed to this?
B/c the US would back up the French, since they dont like
the idea of slaves ruling a country/blacks ruling a country
1803, Haiti sold Louisiana to U.S for 60 million, therefore debt was
reduced to 90 million
Debt was paid off in 1947
These reparations really structured how the government would run
things
Must get foreign currency to repay loan
oIn order to do this, they have to continue to produce coffee &
sugar
oBut they now do not have slaves to make them work
Rural code established where rural people where not allowed to move,
and had to farm. They were prohibited from socializing and moving
after midnight (this was to prevent any rebellion organization against
the Affranchis). Small scale commerce were also prohibited, they
wanted farmers only income to be farming for exports and enough to
feed themselves.
Between 1804 and 1990, the government of Haiti built only 32 high
schools across the entire country, and almost everyone were in a
city/town.
oThe government was not using the services for the country, but
only to repay the reparations
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3. US IMPERIALISM, 1915-1934
US also star to face the difficulties of supply and demand, hence
imperialist expansion
However, unlike British and French who take over the entire country,
the US sent their marines over to countries to discipline their local
government to allow the US to conduct their business there
1915, US invade and take control of Haiti reason = Haiti has become
very unstable
But real motivation was that there was a law coming from parliament
that would prevent foreign owner ship
Marines forced workers to build roads, were abused, and those who tried
to escape were killed
US left in 1934, the central bank in Haiti were American controlled, the
roads were American controlled, and same with the sugar economy.
Although they removed troops in 1934, they still controlled the Haitian
finances
oKept control till 1947
4. DUVALIER REIGN OF TERROR (1956–1986)
Father and Son (Duvaliers) - Presidents
oPapa and Baby doc
Tontons Macouts were unofficial police force for Duvaliers
1971 when Baby doc takes over and kicked out in 1986
In late 1970s, Anglo-western countries, starting with Britain, then US,
begin to get new ideas of how to run the country (Neoliberalism).
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