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Lecture

ANT204H1 Lecture Notes - Cash Crop, Crimean War, Great Depression


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT204H1
Professor
Leslie Jermyn

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The Magnificent
-Think about what motivated Europeans to establish control over most of Africa in 19th century
- How they decided which bits each of them will claim
- How did they treat colonial subjects? (You need to know why they colonized first to answer this question)
- How did they manage the colonies
- What did the colonial administration look like, what did they do
- What may be some of the consequences – social, political, economic – for people today in Africa, of this colonial
project and the fact that they were colonized because of certain motivations, etc
-During colonization, only two countries remained out of Europe’s control
-In 1884 Bismarck and a bunch of people met to settle colonial disputes
oEveryone wanted a part of Africa
-Didn’t care what irrational frontiers they made, they just wanted Africa
-Banjul
oBritain wanted to keep this river route, but France invading from the West got all the territories around the
river, so, the French really wanted the river as well, BUT British insisted on keeping the river
-Seize Africa and rule the country
-Said that Africans were lazy and so Europe was justified in taking away their country from them
-European invasions were never easy, there was always reisistence, and conquest led to a lot of ruthless killing
-King was made to kiss the British empire’s foot and then was exiled
-New technologies gave easy victories to the invaders; conquest resisters died
-French – wherever good water and good land are foud, settlers go in, without finding out who’s land it may be. The
settlers unsurprisingly agreed
-Kenya farming lands were open to colonizers for next to nothing. At first they were welcomed by the Africans, but
this didn’t last for long. Colonizers wanted land and labour.
-People’s lands were taken away, people sought refuge in missionaries
-By 1920s, half of the able bodied men were working as labours for the British – took advantage of settlers
-Taxation – to cultivate the lands, they made the Africans pay taxes, but having no econmy, they had to work for
settlers to earn the cash so that they could pay the taxes
oHad to pay tax for their own houses, two shillings for each house
-Government bought soldiers to take the children away, then send them to school.
-In Northern Nigeria, colonial scene was very different. There were no white settlers, and things were peaceful.
oIndirect rule was easier – local princes and kings kept the rule, and those at the top had much to gain
oKings were able to stay in power, able to call on their own local retainers to govern the everyday affairs of
the country
oFor part of Nigeria, British rule did not mean anything, life went on
-Frnech colonies
oBritish people thought their natives couldn’t become anything
oFrench thought that in the end, all the Africans would become Black Frenchmen – Assimilation
But the number of people in certain areas was just too great for assimilation
Diagne – First black man to be elected to French, he demanded black rights, etc
-WWI – French
-Crimean War – more than 200 000 african troops were sent to fronts, and at least 170 000 died (??)
oWhite men and black men were equal in the trenches – but were they equal in the colonies?
-With the coming of peace in 1918, there was a more thorough system of taxation – to pay for the government
-Founding of first hospitals, and other things of Western life – what colonizers brought
oBut natives had to pay for these things, through crops that brought cash
-But cash crop success also brought problems
oMonoculture –
oBusinessmen just wanted to produce oil for the international market – so there was a tendency to specilize
oEveryone specialized in what they did best – reliance on one cropdependance
-1929 – Depression food production badly hit because of land taken for cash crops
-What was true of the French empire was true of the others as well
-Ex. Cocoa
oHarvested by Africans who sold it to British and other foreign, sell it at artificially low prices
oBecame biggest producer of cocoa, but gains were not equally shared
oFarmers were being cheated,
-In West, advertisements made fun of Africans
-Reign of terror used to extract riches from the land
oPeople would often lose body parts as forms of punishment
-Railway in French equatorial Africa – built by Africa, But about 14000 Africans died while building it
oBuilt to ensure the export of minerals and wealth, esp from Southern Africa
oPeople were forced to work
-Gold mining was a big industry, however there were 10 African miner deaths each week for 30 years
oLiving conditions for miners were not good though
oChild labour
-By 1930s, labour system meant people leaving their families and going to work – MIGRANT LABOUR
oDestroyed old stabilities of rural Africa
oOrder of society was becmonig bad because of migrant labour
-Portugese colonies – forced labour was at its worst
oAfricans were forced to grow cotton and sell it at VERY low prices, farmers used to say that cotton was the
mother of poverty, Africans hated cotton
oAnyone who refused to work was beated, arrested, etc
oHad no legal means of protest, but they sang songs in their own language
oFood crops eventually disappeared, prosperous areas were hit by famine
-Aims
oTO extract wealth
Use of forced labour
Pressure to gorw crops
Deliberate treatment f Africans as inferior beings
-Resistence
oCocoa farmers demanded greater prices
-Italy invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935 – more colonialism
oBombed and shelled their way to success, but Africans were outraged
oWas the last beam of hope
oSubjected Ethiopia
oSent out a call for action to Africans everywhere
-New generation of anti-colonial Africans
DARFUR DIARIES – AMNESTY VIDEO
- What is the goal of the film? What message do they want to convey? What do directors want to happen in
your head?
- If this film was your only exposure to whats happening in Darfur, what would you end up believing was
the cause of the violence in this area?
- How does the film rationalize the cause of violence?
- Movie starts off with cartoon depiction of what happened in Darfur – used to be happy, then a lot of violence ,
planes from above, bullets at children, etc
- Desert growth--?clash for land and water resources
- Proxy militias known as Janjaweed have been created by military, and supported them with weapons
- Sudan was a British colony until 1954, then there was a military coup, but that government is unpopular, no matter
the tribe
- Separated Arabs and Blacks , Arabs were always against the Blacks, but now the government helps them
- Conflict came from herders and fatmers for land. Government tried to keep tmhem separate and push them towards
way
- Thousands of refugees, war zone, etc, people forced to be reugees
- Military attacks, human rights infringements,
- Arabs are capturing blacks and causing violence
-Moview shows a lot of personal stories of people from Darfur – try to get you to relate to them, tells stories of
childrens mothers, fathers, etc personal accounts of their experiences; almost the whole film is like that
- Children are programmed with imaged of war, violence, Antonovs, planes, etc – they have seen it all, exposed to
way at young age – draw pics of Janjaweed, army cars, Antonovs, etc
- Girls raped by the Janjaweed, girls of all ages
- The film made Arabs look really bad – focus up close to their face, see the bad parts of the face, focus on their
weapons
- Arabs claim they have been victimized
-Schools destroyed in Farawiyah, books burned, etcleading to lack of education in the region
- But they still educate children on the grounds outside and stuff, even though its bad conditions for the teachers and
students – they value education and know that it is important for the children
- If hthis happened in LA, the world would help them, but since it is in Darfur, no one cares – towards the end of the
film
- At the end, a guy says he wants all of Sudan people to be together, not the Arabs and Blacks fighting
- 200 000 refugees since 2005
- 400 000 died because of conflict
- Dedicated to children, women,and men of Darfur
-