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Lecture 5

ANT253H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Haitian Creole, Code-Switching, Georg Wenker


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT253H1
Professor
Marcel Danesi
Lecture
5

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 12 pages of the document.
Feb. 7th, 2017
ANT253 Lecture #5: Chapters 3-5 (apparently)
Test
SCANTRON TEST WHEEEEW
On chapters 1-5
Chapter 3: Variation in Geographical Space
- DIALECTOLOGY: study of dialects
- CONTACT LINGUISTICS: investigation of languages in contact (Ex// Spanglish)
- DIALECT: geographical variants of a language
o Pronunciation
- In languages there has to be a “norm”
o One version is the standard, everything else deviates from it
o Tested by questionnaires (Jules Guilliéron)
o Dialect Atlas (Georg Wenker) = collection of maps of specific regions showing the actual
pronunciation, morphology and other structural features that a word or phrase takes on in
them
- DIALECT CONTINUUM: used by dialectologists to explain why some dialects may be
perceived as separate langauges
- Speech communities
- Example American vs. British
American
British
Color
Colour
Odor
Odour
Center
Centre
Program
Programme
Analyze
Analyse
Recognize
Reognise
TV
Telly
Friend
Mate
Elevator
Lift
Subway
Underground
- MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY: can understand it mutually Americans can understand
Canadians and Brits
- FUN FACT: America doesn’t have an official language
- Canada’s official languages are English and French (Multicultural Act?) Other languages have
official status if the people want
Pidgins and Creoles ***CRUCIAL FOR TEST
- The Pidgin and Creole tongues spoken in various parts of the world are examples
o Ex// Haitian Creole, based on French
- Countries that are colonized
- In Haiti, the French took it over
- People who don’t know the language find it irrelevant just get the message across
- Simplify the language to get the message across
- PIDGIN: result when people of different linguistic backgrounds have been brought together in
specific situations, with no common language to use; construction of rudimentary language with
circumscribed vocabulary and grammar so they can communicate (not a loss of linguistic
sophistication!)
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- Outcomes for Pidgin languages
o 1) It may eventually disappear Ex// Hawaiian pidgin almost entirely English
o 2) Remain for generations, may drop out of use Ex// West African pidgin
o 3) Evolve into a new tongue creation of CREOLE
- CREOLE: language developed from a mixture
o Develop their own culture (Ex// Louisiana)
o Has the most contributed to the formation of its lexicon
o LEXIFER LANGUAGE: Main parent language
Lingua Franca
- LINGUA FRANCA: language used that everyone understands, international communication
- A language that is systematically, rather than casually, used to make communication possible
between people not sharing a native language
- Lingua Francas have arisen throughout human history, often for commercial, scientific, or other
official reasons (there are many in existence today)
- LINGUISTIC IMPERIALISM: awareness of native speakers with respect to lingua franca
speakers, because they instinctively understand their cultural suppositions; can have very negative
effects on interpersonal communications
- 1600/1700 this language was French
- Conferences would be spoken in French
- Today the Lingua Franca is probably not French probably English now
- Everybody needs to learn for official, international reasons
- Comes about because of political and geopolitical reasons
- Ex// Koine was the common language of the Greeks from the close of the classical period to the
Byzantine era
Diglossia
- DIGLOSSIA: the social assignment of prestige to linguistic variants or dialects
- Ex// Germany (German spoken in Switzerland= Switzerdeutsch vs. Germany= Deutsch)
- HIGH AND LOW developed by FERGUSON?
o LOW: basic, ordinary conversations
Typically children learn low language in diglossic societies
o HIGH: formal communications and writing
o Social concept
o Ex// Italian Tuscan vs. Sicilian
Sicilian once considered high language in 1200
Tuscan/Florentine rose when Florence became bigger (Florentine capital growth)
Low Dialect
High Dialect
Low prestige
High prestige
Intimate communication
Formal communication
Group solidarity
Social authority and power
Mainly Spoken
Part of literacy traditions
Informal
Formal
Usually a native language
Usually a learned language
Passed on in a community
Passed on through schooling
Bilingualism and Code-Switching
- BILINGUALISM: the acquisition and use of two languages
- Two types of BILINGUALISM: social and personal
o PERSONAL: depending on who you are speaking to=
o You don’t use languages, one or the other, arbitrarily
o Ex// Danesi going to Italy
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He can barely speak English, can’t translate easily
Thick accent
- CODE-SWITCHING: the admixture of languages in the speech of bilinguals and others
o Has many functions in AAVE and during conversations in SAE or AAE
o As speaking English who also understands Italian, occasionally insert an Italian word
o Examples of Code-Switching in Spanglish
“What is esa cosa (this thing) in Spanglish?”
“Hey, amigo (friend, dude) donde (where) are you going?”
“He is really loco (crazy)”
o Two main types of Code-Switching:
INTERSNETENTIAL: code-switching between sentences
INTRASENTENTIAL: code-switching within sentences
- Code-Switching and code-mixing serve several functions
o They allow bilingual people to say words that don’t necessarily translate exactly to
another language fill conceptual gaps
Ex// Sympatico in Italian = nice, sweet, many other definitions = Danesi uses the
Italian word
o Switch to let people know who they are; it shows we have belonging system that others
do not, by the language show allegiance
o They indicate that certain topics are felt to be more appropriately articulated in one or
other language
Ex// Danesi talking to friend who is also a socio-linguist and Italian
When topics were about personal life = Italian
When topics were more intellectually important = English
o PETER AUER: suggested that code-switching influences the subsequent choices of all
speakers
Rather than the social values inherent, the speaker focuses on the act of code-
switching
o Code-Switching minimizes social distances and differences during speech seek
approval by adapting
Bilingualism and Multilingualism
1) INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL BILINGUALISM: the former indicates that individuals can be
reared or become bilingual uses; the latter indicates that a society can be bilingual, wherein many
speakers are themselves bilinguals and the society use more than one language as part of
discourse practices and (typically) for legal reasons
a. Ex// Canada where English and French are official languages
2) PRODUCTIVE AND RECEPTIVE BILINGUALISM: this former refers to an individual who
speak (and of course understand) two languages and the latter to one who mainly understands just
one of the two. Immigrant children of the second …..
3) PRIMARY OR SECONDARY BILINGUALIST: the former refers to an individual who was
reared functionally in two languages and the later to one who acquires a second language outside
his or her rearing and typically later in life
4) ADDITIVE AND SUBRTACTIVE BILIGUALISM: the former refers to a society that allows the
bilingual child to maintain the home language in some formal way at school, adding on the school
language; the latter refers instead to a social situation that does not allow (and may even
discourage) the use of the home language at school
a. Ex// Danesi speaking Italian at school, told him not to speak it Subractive
i. Telling him to not speak it at all
b. Ex// Danesi going into class that is taught in Italian Additive
i. Speaking native language and transitioning him
Borrowing
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