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Lecture 17

ANT333Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Null Model, Near Islands, Quadrupedalism

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Shawn Lehman

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ANT333 Lecture #17 Primate Communities & Biogeography
Biogeography Defined
Study of the geographical distribution of organisms
Concerned with why something is where it is and why it is absent in other arrears
Absence is harder to determine
Determine non-random patterns of distribution and diversity.
Ecological models: quality and size of habitats play key roles in determining distribution and
diversity. what’s there now
Historical models: distribution and diversity result of series of events that led to origin, dispersal,
and extinction of taxa
Species-Area Relationships
Positive relationship between # of species and size of area.
For example, Reed and Fleagle (1995) documented high correlation (R2= 0.87) between number
of primate species and area of rain forest for major continents.
Species-Area Relationships in Caribbean Bats
Positive slope
How does it Work?
Many ecological processes used to explain species-area relationships: rainfall (correlated with
plant abundance/diversity), habitat diversity (less competition for resources), & latitude (closer
to equator = more diversity).
At regional level, habitat diversity hypothesis one of most readily accepted theories used to
explain species-area relationships: species richness increases with an increase in area because
larger areas have a greater diversity of habitats.
Island Biogeography
(Robert McArthur and E.O. Wilson)
How do size and distance from mainland affect species richness of island communities?
Matrix (water) inhospitable (important in a moment)
Null model everything goes back to a perfect state
Effect of Distance From the Mainland on Species Richness
o # species fluctuates then reaches equilibrium
o Near Islands higher Rate of Colonization
o Near Islands higher equilibrium # of species
Effect of Distance From the Mainland on Species Richness
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