Class Notes (809,279)
Canada (493,607)
Anthropology (1,637)
ANT100Y1 (945)
Lecture 1

Archaeology Lecture One + Readings

12 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

What is Archaeology? Homo sapiens: the biological species category in which humans fall into; the first Homo sapiens may have emerged 200 000 years ago. Human variation: study of how and why contemporary human populations vary biologically Physical anthropologists use the principles, concepts, and techniques of at least three disciplines to further their understanding of human biological diversity: o Human genetics study of human traits that are inherited o Population biology study of environmental effects on and interaction with population characteristics o Epidemiology study of how and why diseases affect different populations in different ways Physical anthropologists are concerned most with human populations and how they vary biologically If some human societies lack a written record of their past, archaeologists reconstruct the history of those societies from the remains of human culture Historical archaeology: study of material remains of recent peoples who left written records Uncovering the Past: Tools and Techniques Specialized methods have been used to locate archaeological sites (areas of human habitation or where fossil remains are found) o Sites usually consist of a collection of activity areas containing either: o Artifacts any portable object whose form has been shaped by way of human activity (e.g., clay pots, stone figurines) Examples are Acheulian axe from Gilan, Iran; funerary mask of Tutankhamen Most common artifacts are lithics (stone tools); display evidence of reduction Can be further subdivided into: o Chipped or flaked lithic tools flintknapping one of the earliest industrial arts Emerged with Homo habilis some 2.5 mya Involves removing flakes from cores in a controlled manner Core the block of raw material from which flakes are struck Flake the relatively thin fragment of lithic material removed from a core Debitage the by-products of core reduction, includes flakes and exhausted cores o Ground stone tools Produced by pecking, abrading, and polishing macrocrystalline materials Usually have smooth durable edges and surfaces (e.g, manos, mutates, axes) Decorative items can also be made from ground stone tools o Ecofacts Natural objects that have been used or affected by humans (e.g., animal bones, seeds) o Features non-portable material evidence of human activity (e.g., hearths, shortage pits) Examples are rock art, pyramids of Giza Archaeological techniques are used for excavation of remains to maximize and preserve the information that can be derived from the excavation of a site Provenience: physical location of an artifact or feature within a site in a 3-D space
More Less

Related notes for ANT100Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.