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Lecture 4

Archaeology Lecture Four + Readings

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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

UPPER PALAEOLITHIC CULTURES Period of cultural history in Europe, the Near East and Asia Associated with the emergence of modern humans and their spread around the world Dates from about 40KYA to the Mesolithic period (about 14KYA-10KYA) Striking development of art (e.g., painting on cave walls, stone slabs etc.) Inventions of the bow and arrow appear for the first time The Last Ice Age (TO) Cold climate Weather patterns changing due to changing ocean currents Plants and animals were adapted to the extreme conditions Period of when there were large game animals (known as Pleistocene megafuana) o Examples are giant ground sloths and Siberian mammoths Upper Palaeolithic Europe (TO) Still continued to hunt and gather Also began to trade with neighbouring groups Remains have been excavated from caves and rock shelters Tent-like structures were also built in order for warmth Upper Palaeolithic Tools (TO) From the roots of Mousterian and Acheulian traditions (still did flaking) Preponderance of blades, burins, bones, antler tools and microliths o Microliths Small, razor-like blade fragment that was attached in a series to a wooden or bone handle to form a cutting edge Two methods were used: indirect percussion and pressure flaking Upper Palaeolithic Cultures in Africa and Asia (TO) People hunted large animals on grasslands in North Africa
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