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Biology-Lecture 5-Chapter 9-Homo Erectus and Archaic Homo Sapiens Chapter 10-Modern Homo Sapiens

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Marcel Danesi

Reading Notes 10-09-08 Chapter 9: Homo Erectus and Archaic Homo Sapiens Homo Erectus O First hominin to be found outside Africa (Europe and Asia 2 MYA) O Homo Ergaster: Africa O Homo Erectus: east Asia O Homo Heidelbergensis: Europe O Homo erectus-> early samples of homo sapiens The Discovery in Java and Later Finds O Dubois found: Pithecanthropus erectus (erect ape man) O Ape? Man? O Koenigswald: More homo erectus fossils found in java from about 1 MYA O Black: 1929- evidence of first peking man skull (china) O Not until 1950s were homo erectus skulls found in N Africa O Since then have been found in E Africa (Tanzania, Kenya) O Oldest known specimen of homo erectus found by Leakey, Kenya, dates back 1.78 MYA Physical Characteristics of Homo Erectus O Skull: long, low, thickly walled, flat frontal area, prominent brow ridges O Sagittal Keel: an inverted v-shaped running along the top of the skull O Occipital Torus: a ridge bone running horizontally across the back of the skull in apes and some hominins O Small teeth O Taurodontism: having teeth with an enlarged pulp cavity O Lighter, thinner jaw O Prognathic: a physical feature that is sticking out or pushed forward, such as the faces in apes and some hominin species O Flat, projecting nose O Walk upright, manipulate things (modern) O Give birth to more immature babies with smaller head in order to pass through bipedal pelvis outlet Homo Floresiensis O A distinct species closely related to homo erectus and only found on the Indonesian island of Flores. They are tiny, with cranial capacities of about 380 cc- dwarfism The Evolution of Homo Erectus O Brain continued to expand (Increasing use of tools ) O Face, teeth, jaw continued to shrink (Eating proper cooked meat) O Reduction in extent of sexual dimorphism O Culture: home bases, meeting places, family groups, sharing, marriage O Movement of populations (our of ES Africa) O Adaption to new environments without apparent physical changes O Usage of fire O Wear animal fur for warmth, hunting O Darker skin Homo Erectus Culture O Oldowan chopper tool technology O Acheulian: a stone tool making tradition (1.5 MYA). Compared with Oldowan tradition,
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