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Archaeology-Chapter 12-Origin of Food Production and Settled Life Nov 27 2008

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Marcel Danesi

Reading Notes 11-27-08 Chapter 12: Origin of Food Production and Settled Life O Beginning ~14K YA, ppl began to depend less on big game hunting and more- relatively stationed food resources (fish, shellfish, small game, wild plants) O EuropeNear East which these developments took place is called the Mesolithic O Fist clear switch over to food production- the cultivation and domestication of plants and animals in Near East (8000 BC)-> Neolithic Revolution O Sedentism: settling in a single, permanent location Food Collection and Production O Food Collection: all forms of subsistence technology in which food-getting is dependent on naturally occurring resources- wild plants and animals O Subsistence Technology: the methods human use to procure food O Foragers: ppl who subsist on the collection of naturally occurring plants and animals- also referred to as hunter and gatherers- live in marginal areas of earth (deserts, artic, tropical forests) O Food production : the form of subsistence technology in which food getting is dependent on the cultivation and domestication of plants and animals Horticulture O Horticulture: plant cultivation carried out with relatively simple tools and methods, nature replaces nutrients in the soil, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields O (1) Shifting Cultivation: a type of horticulture in which the land is worked for short periods and then left to regenerate for some years before being used again O (2) Slash and Burn Techniques : a form of shifting cultivation in which the natural vegetation is cut down and burned off. The cleared ground is used for a short time and hen left again O Most horticultures do not rely on crops alone for food- many hunt and fish O Raise domesticated animals- cattle, camels, pigs, goat, sheep O Horticulture society- simple farming techniques have tended to yield more food form a given area than is generally available to food collectors- therefore HC can support larger , densely populated communities Intensive Agriculture O Intensive Agriculture: food production characterized by the permanent cultivation of fields and made possible by the use of the plow, draft animals or machines, fertilizers, irrigation, water storage techniques, and other complex agricultural techniques Pre-Agricultural Develops Europe O Environmental changes (melting of glaciers-> dense mixed forests)- induced some pops in Europe to alter food getting strategies O No longer obtain large quantities of meat- intensive collecting of wild plants, molluscs, fish, small game O The Maglemosian Culture of Northern Europe O Settlers of N Europe- Maglemosians O To deal with new forests-> made stones axes to chop down trees and form them into various objects- Canoes, paddles (which were used for travel, fishing) O Depended mainly on hunting for food (elk, wild ox, deer, wild pig) O Tool kit included B&A
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