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Archaeology-Chapter 13-Origin of Cities and States Dec 4 2008

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University of Toronto St. George
Marcel Danesi

Reading Notes 12-04-08 Chapter 13: Origin of Cities and States O Civilization: urban society, from the Latin word for city state O State: a political unit with centralized decision making affecting a large population. Many states have cities with public buildings; full time craft and religious specialists, an official art style; a hierarchal social structure topped by an elite class; and a governmental monopoly on the legitimate use of force to implement policies Archeological Inferences About Civilization O Egalitarian Society: a society in which all persons of a given age-sex category have equal access to economic resources, power, and prestige- (earliest Neolithic societies were egalitarian) Cities and States in Southern Iraq The Formative Era O 5000 BC- 3500 BC O Development of small scale irrigation, lowland river areas (which provided variety of food)- began to attract settlers O Differences in status are reflected in the burial of statues and ornaments with children O Different villages specialized in the production of different goods- pottery, copper, stone tools, etc O Certain places may have been centres of politicalreligious authority for several communities O Chiefdoms: a political unit, with a chief at its head, integrating more than one community but no
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