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ANT348 Week 11 Lecture Notes

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ANT348 Medical Anthropology in Rural South Africa: Ukuthwala as a Public Health Issue  The social context in which HIV is playing out Background Info: South Africa  Women tend to be infected at a younger age hence a shorter life expectancy  Race categories – there is a distinction between black/African and coloured  Many people consider themselves ‘African’ because they live in Africa but may be another race other than black  The use of ‘coloured’ is not considered rude in South Africa because it is used to talk about a distinct group of people  Very diverse country  diverse people  11 national languages HIV in South Africa  Difficult to estimate how many HIV+ there are in S. Africa  Every 4 years, surveys conducted like a census  Modes of transmission listed in order of likelihood o PMTCT – mother to child infection o MSM – men having sex with other men o These are not mutually exclusive methods  ARVs – anti viral drugs paid for by government Huge Variation  Variation across country  1/3 women between 25-29 are HIV+  high prevalence in urban townships – informal slums etc MARPS – most at risk persons  doesn’t explain why they are risky, but does identify those who are at risk  identifies most people in S. Africa – especially since life expectancy is about 50 Points to Consider  more people are being infected, prevalence goes up but misleading as people are living healthier and longer  antenatal clinics are public clinics  people who cannot afford private health care, generally people who are poor and have been having sex without condoms  pregnancy Eastern Cape  government had no obligation to provide any services  had two former homelands  why it’s so poor o very densely populated, rural, not a lot of infrastructure  not accessible, not many tourists  average household is about 6.5 people, with several generations and other people who work as migrant workers  70% of households have at least one person working, neighbouring households only have 50%  migrant workers is a factor why HIV is so prevalent  don’t always have enough eat  80% households have water tank – access to clean water  there is no basic sanitary system
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