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ANTB22-primate behaviour.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dr.Joyce Parga

Purple: Infraorder Primate Order Red: Family Blue: Subfamily Prosimians Anthropoids Lemuriformes Lorisiformes Tarsiiforms Platyrrhini Catarrhini AteliPeitheiitieaebidCaellitrichidae Hominoidea Cercopithecoidae CheiLepilemuridaeideridaeGalagLosrisidae Tarssidae Howler monknightsquirrel monkey, & capuchin monkey : indri, sifaka, woolly lemur slow lo: tarsierise Saki, Titi monketamarin, marmoset ruffed lemur, bamboo lemur, ring : Mo:se lemur, dwarf lemur, fork Sportive lemur HylobPatidaidoeminidaeercopitobcnnaaee - aye Orangutans, Gorilla,Colobusimps Gibbon & Siamangn Baboon, Macaque, Patas - - tailed lemur, eulemur marked lemur Taxonomy Example: humans Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primate Family Hominidae Genus Homo Species Sapiens The Order: Primate characteristics (there are excep)ions  Large brain (relative to body size)  Binocular vision (stereoscopic vision)  3-D arboreal environment theory  Visual predation (insectivores) theory  Have nails instead of claws  Opposable thumb  Divergent toe  Dermatoglyphs (fingerprints)  Clavicle (collarbone)  Postorbital bar Prosimians (characteristics)  Small bodied (less than 10 kg)  Chemical communication via scent-marking common (olfactory system)  Toothcomb (modified incisors and canines)  grooming  Grooming claw on the 2 toe (used for grooming and fighting between males)  Tapetum lucidum (active at night/ night vision)  Lemurs, lorises, pottos, galagos, and tarsiers  All are restricted to the old world (Africa and Asia) (pg.44 – map) Lemurs are only found in Madagascar, galagos are found in Africa, lorises and tarsiers are found in Asia Dwarf Lemur Fork-marked lemur Bamboo lemur Daubentonia madagascariensis Mouse lemur (Hapalemur&prolemur) (aye-aye) Lemur Catta (ring tailed lemur) Cathemeral Have ever growing incisors Female dominant Can consume high levels of Insectivores Troop size: as many as 30 bamboo (cyanide=poison) Elongated middle finger – to tap Diurnal (not certain) on wood and listen for grubs Vocalization Woodpecker niche Sexually onomorphic (Same) Family: Cheirogaleidae Nocturnal LEMURS Mouse lemur  smallest living primate  Only found in Madagascar Fat-tailed dwarf lemur hibernates and enters  Some are nocturnal, some torpor (metabolic state when the heart rate Eulemurs (true lemur) are diurnal, others are E. coronatus decreases) cathermeral (day and night)  Some species show female dominance E. macaco Folivrous (leaves) Largest of the lemurs Varecia Variegata (ruffed lemur) Locomotion: verticle clinging and Give birth to litters (6 nipples) leaping & bipedal hopping on ground Small family groups Galagos (bushbabies) Loud alarm calls Africameral Carry infants in mouthent dominance
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