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ANTB22 - LEC 1 - JAN 10 2013.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dr.Joyce Parga

HOW TO CLASS PRIMATES  Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primates,  KPCOFGS  Eg: orders (classes of mammals):  Rodentia (mice)  Chirotera (bats)  Cetacea (Dolphin)  Lagomorpha (Rabbit)  Carnivora (lion, dog)  Primates PRIMATE CHAR.  Big brain rel to body size  Binocular vision (stereoscopic vision – overlapping visual field)  Diff hyp for why:  1. 3D arboreal envi (kid on monkey bar)  2. Visual Predation (what they ate)  Good vision needs to catch insects  Insectivores (earliest primates were probably) GEN CHAR.  Nails instead of claws  Opposable thumb – imply a precision grip (dexterity)  Grooming for example, babboons pick out ticks w/ their opp thumb  Divergent big toe (sticking out)(lemur foot) – hold branches - Arboreal assist  Dermatoglyphs (finger prints)  Clavicle (collarbone) – stabilizes shoulder, arboreal mvmt assist – dogs and cats don’t climb and suspend so they don’t have a clavicle, primates can dangle  Post orb bar (cranial feature) POST ORBITAL BAR  Raccoon – no bar (Therefore not a primate)  Lemurand gibbons yes  Skull on diagram – is this a primate? Test question PRIMATES (eitherprosimeon or anthropoids – both are suborders)  Lemurs are anthropoids? NO (test question)  Prosimeon – everything else  Anthropoids (large members of primate order) - monkey, ape, humans PROSIM GENERAL CHAR  Small body (<10kg)  Chemical communication – via scent marking (analgenital scent wiping)  No monkey will scent mark  Alter habitats w/ scent marking  Toothcomb (incisor canine modulation)  Lemur groom w/ toothcomb  Function – take out debris/ticks  Grooming claw (2 toe) – lemur foot – long nail – not solely for grooming  Scratch back of neck  Can use to fight (2 males lemurs – jump fight)  TapetumLucidum present  Function – layer behind retina to scatter light  Acquires light  Well adapted (not usually nocturnal)  Lemurs, lorises, pottos, galagos, tarsiers  All prosimeons - restricted to Old World (Africa, Asia) page 44 refer to GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF EXTANT PROSIMEON  Africa – only galago  Asia – only Lorises, Tarsiers (Lorises are not found in NA – test question)  Centre Grp(not mainland Africa) – only Madagascar (aye ayes, lemurs etc) LEMUR  Only in Madagascar – sexual dichromatism blue woman and black man eye  Many nocturnal, some diurnal (daytime), many cathemeral (day and night active)  variation of activity patterns, what times of days are they active research  Female dominance (for some) – true for all ring-tailed female lemurs  Chimps/Babboons – male dominance  What about hyenas? Female dominant for only some (ring tailed – ALL of them are female
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